History Week 14
History Week 14 History 241
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Katie Truppo on Saturday August 20, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to History 241 at University of Tennessee - Knoxville taught by Robert Bast in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 6 views. For similar materials see Western civilization in History at University of Tennessee - Knoxville.
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What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
Date Created: 08/20/16
World History 241 11.24.2015 Unit 7 Lecture 3 I. Papal Reform and the Investiture Conﬂict (continued) Began to clean up papacy Realize that power will not be complete if they are under control of secular leaders 1054: Pope Leo the Third issues excommunication of eastern church, causes schism between christians in east and west A. Against “Simony” Simony: buying your ecclesiastical oﬃce (paying to become a bishop) Declared papacy can prosecute people who practice simony Reforming bishops told violators to renounce oﬃce and give it back to them Allowed transfer of power from Kings to Popes B. For Celibacy Celibacy had been part of monastic tradition Revived ancient practice, required for all clergy Reasons: moral and transfer of property C.For Supreme Authority 1. Against Constantinople Rome is head of the church 2. Against the Independence of Bishops Pope has overall power over bishops 3. Against the Emperor and Secular Authorities: The Dictatus Papae and the Investiture Conﬂict Clergy has power over soul > Emperor has power of body Clergy can only be held accountable only by God 4. Against Islam Christianity is superior, Jesus is the messiah II. The Crusades: Piety, Power and Proﬁt A. An Eastern Problem: The Byzantines and the Seljuk Turks: Manzikert 1071 Tension arises, suggest taking back Holy Land in the name of Christ B. Pope Urban II and Holy War Idea that whole planet has been assigned to papacy Urban II called for Christian war Called upon clergy and nobility Sermons caused 40,000 volunteers to march to Jerusalem (mostly poor) Massacred Western European Jews Fought Hungarians, lost half of force Got to Constantinople and Emperor put them on ships and sent them to ﬁght Turks, Turks slaughtered them Organized military response 4 armies mobilized by military leaders Series of military success C. A Shocking Success Never Repeated: The 1 Crusade No real leader, took advantage of disunity in Muslim world and began to conquer 4 cities Never repeated: momentary exploitation of disunity of Muslim kingdoms never happened again Speed and violence of war Virtually indiscriminate slaughter D. The Business of Holy War, Inc. Great for business Reintroduced Western Europe into trade routes