History Week 15
History Week 15 History 241
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Katie Truppo on Saturday August 20, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to History 241 at University of Tennessee - Knoxville taught by Robert Bast in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 5 views. For similar materials see Western civilization in History at University of Tennessee - Knoxville.
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Date Created: 08/20/16
World History 241 12.1.2015 Unit 7 Lecture 4 I. Changing Material Conditions A. The “Medieval Climate Optimum” Time of change and progress B. The Agricultural Revolution Warmer, ideal rainfall Mild winters Advancements in technology increased crop yields 3 ﬁeld crop rotation Metallurgy allowed creation of better metal plows Wind mills and water mills harnessed natural energy C. The Growth of Population, Trade and Towns Population boom between 1000-1300 Caused revival of towns Some settlements revolved around royal/clergy residence Towns as charters: elected oﬃcials to create laws and regulate II. Changing Political Conditions: The Revival of Kingship A. England: The Norman Conquest, 1066 Duke from France became King of England, tied fate Henry II and the Angevins, c. 1154 Married Eleanor of Equitaine, previously scandalous marriage that was annulled With her backing and wealth, he entered war, brokered a treaty, and became King of England Led to expansive territory held by both Deeply engaged in tearing down unlawful fortresses built by nobles Justices sent by Henry enhance reach and power over justice Oﬀered to have cases judged by peers The Limits of Royal Power: Magna Carta, 1215 Magna Carta: limit on royal power, Property cannot be seized by the crown Limits on taxes Limits on arrests and holding indeﬁnitely B. France: The Capetian Dynasty: 987-1328 Philip II, 1180-1223 Son of Eleanor’s ﬁrst husband Came to the thrown recognizing that Henry II beat his father multiple times Thought problem was England’s hold on territory in France Aligns with Eleanor and other sons Was able to push English out of most French territory Walled city of Paris, controlled movement/taxing of goods Paved streets Built ﬁrst market With help of Pope, chartered school of Paris C. The German Empire: Frederick I, “Barbarossa”: 1122-1190 Limits royal power Papacy and nobility were constant foes Wanted empire of Charlamagne, used Roman law "Peace of the land" becomes responsibility of Emperor to enforce Own right to collect tariﬀs Right to remove public oﬃce holders from oﬃce Drowns in an accident The Rise and Fall of the Hohenstaufen Frederick the 2nd Admired and feared by many Excommunicated by Pope 4 times Culturally lenient/ accepting Unwillingness to rule Germany causes fragmentation III. The New Estate: The “Bourgeoisie” A. Challengers of Traditional Values Church is uncomfortable with urban class lifestyle Middle ages showed growth of etiquette and domestication of aristocratic class B. Protection through Collective Association: the Guild. Protect manufacturing goods Regulates competition IV. Culture Wars: Religious Conservatives vs. the New Intellectuals A. The Monastic Establishment as “Masters of the Sacred Page” Increased contact with East led to inﬂux of knowledge that had been forgotten Taught in schools B. The New Intellectuals: “Philosophers” and the Schools Taught by wanderers, cathedral schools, then dedicated schools called universities Monopoly of church over education transfers to payment for education C. Student Culture: The Goliards Job of establishment is to persevere knowledge, intellectuals are to advance knowledge D. Peter Abelard (1079-1142) and the New Individualism Wanted an education and to become most famous intellectual in France (brilliant but arrogant) The History of My Calamities Pulled conﬂicting statements from Church Students were assigned to ﬁnd out why conﬂicts exist and what truth is Said doubting and questioning authority leads to truth Ethics, or Know Thyself Yes and No (Sic et Non)
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