Chapter 1: The Main Themes of Microbiology
Chapter 1: The Main Themes of Microbiology 2420
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Siân L'Roy on Saturday August 20, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 2420 at Tarrant County College District taught by Mark Pulse in Summer 2016. Since its upload, it has received 12 views. For similar materials see Microbiology in Biology at Tarrant County College District.
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Date Created: 08/20/16
Chapter 1: The Main Themes of Microbiology 1. Microorganisms have existed for ~3.5 billion years; continually evolving and adapting to their environments; important responsibilities include: a. Decomposition of dead material (plants and animals) b. Fixation of atmospheric nitrogen for use by plants c. Replenishing atmospheric O 2 2. Microbiology involves the study of bacteria, viruses, eukaryotic unicellular and multicellular organisms; most are microscopic and can only be viewed with magnification a. Bacteria: Singlecelled, prokaryotic organisms; variety of shapes (spherical, rod, and spiral); thick cell wall; divide by binary fission; some are motile (flagella), do not produce multicellular structures b. Viruses: Nonliving particles or agents; comprised of nucleic acid covered by a protein coat; considered obligate intracellular parasites (use host machinery), host specific e.g. HIV to Helper T cells, can also infect bacteria c. Eukaryotic unicellular and multicellular organisms: Nuclear membrane, membranebound organelles and cytoskeleton are all present e.g.(s) yeast cells, mold, and mushrooms i. Algae: Generate energy through photosynthesis (photoautotrophs) live mostly in aquatic environments ii. Fungi: Obtain energy from organic material (chemoorganotrophs); live mostly in terrestrial, e.g.(s) yeast, mold, and mushrooms iii. Protozoa: Singlecelled organisms; energy obtained from organic material (chemoorganotrophs); most are highly mobile and can live in aquatic or terrestrial environments 3. Question of Spontaneous Generation: given the right conditions, microorganisms arise from nonliving matter a. 1600’s Francesco Redi: Father of microbiology; disproved this b covering (gauze) meat contained in an open jar to prevent flies from laying eggs; was not Chapter 1: The Main Themes of Microbiology readily acceptedaltered adequate exposure to ‘vital force’ of air to allow growth to occur b. 1800’s Louis Pasteur: used two important experiments to disprove SG i. Culture microorganisms from cotton plug used to filter air ii. Important study used Swannecked flask; sterile broth exposed to ‘vital force’ without growth; microorganisms caught in the curves of the neck c. 1800’s John Tyndall: placed boiled broth into an airtight box; after dust particles settled out, removed lids and broth remained sterile in box d. 1800’s: Difficult to reproduce Pasteur’s and Tyndall’s experiments; endospores were discovered by Cohn and Koch; resistant to sterilization by boiling 4. Mid 1800’s: Germ theory of disease was accepted; germs (microorganisms) can invade other organisms and cause disease; important in the medicine world; beginning of the treatment of diseases 5. Robert Koch: Father of medical microbiology; German physician studied microoganisms (bacteria) associated with diseases a. Developed methods to study Bacillus anthracis (anthrax) b. Developed agar based (solid) media to isolate and purify microorganisms c. Identified Mycobacterium tuberculosis as the agent causing tuberculosis d. Defined as set of rules or postulated centered on the one organism one disease concept as Koch’s Postulates: i. Agent (organism) must be found in every disease case ii. Agent (organism) must be isolated in pure culture iii. Inoculation in a healthy individual will result in the same disease iv. Agent (organism) must be reisolated from inoculated individual 6. 1800’s Phillip Semmelweis and Joseph Lister: Associated infections with disease; worked to alter procedures in hospitals to reduce the spread of infection; (Lister) defined first aseptic (sterile) techniques for hospital (surgical) care 7. Other significant contributors to the field of microbiology include: a. 1800’s Elie Metchnikoff: Father of Immunology; Observed body cells ingesting microbes Chapter 1: The Main Themes of Microbiology b. Early 1900’s Wendell Stanley: Tobacco Mosaic Virus Crystalized the tobacco mosaic virus (virology) c. Early 1900’s (1940’s; WWII) Alexander Fleming: Discovered penicillin (chemotherapy) d. Mid 1900’s (1950’s) James Watson and Francis Crick: Described the structure of DNA (genetics of molecular biology e. Mid 1900’s (1970’s) Barbara McClintock: Discovered ‘jumping genes’ in wheat (genetics and molecular biology) f. Late 1900’s (1980’s 1990’s) Barry Marshal: Estimated 90% had a greater chance of developing H. Pylori; won a Nobel Prize in 2005; H. PyloriUlcers i. Confirmed that H. Pylori is colonized in a person’s stomach ii. Isolated H. Pylori from gastric samples iii. Inoculated susceptible host (himself) (sensitive) to produce Gastritis iv. Reisolated H. Pylori
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