Biology 111 - Week 1 Notes
Biology 111 - Week 1 Notes Biology 111
Illinois Central College
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by nerdybirdie18 on Sunday August 21, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Biology 111 at Illinois Central College taught by Michael Oliver in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 114 views. For similar materials see Biology of Man in Life Science at Illinois Central College.
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Date Created: 08/21/16
Biology 111: The Biology of Man | Michael Oliver ________________________________________________________________________________ Chapter 1: Scientific Study of Life Section 1.1 What is Life? - Cell: smallest (basic) unit of life that can function independently - Cell theory: all life is cellular - Every organism made of (one or more) cells - Organism: living thing or individual - Cell outer membrane separates it from its surroundings/ carries water and chemicals that help cell function - DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid): informational molecule of life - Code for protein enzymes for cellular reactions - plants have cell wall outside of cell membrane - animals have no cell wall, only cell membrane - 5 characteristics of Life 1. Organized - all living structures made up of atoms -Atoms: smallest chemical unit of a type of pure substance Example: Carbon -bond together forming molecules: group of joined atoms Example: DNA - molecules often grouped into organelles: membrane-bounded structure that has a specific function within a cell Example: Chloroplast - some cells DO NOT contain organelles - unicellular vs. multicellular organisms - Multicellular organisms made up of organs or organ systems – unicellular organisms the exception - Multicellular organisms organized into specialized tissues: collection of specialized cells functioning in coordinated fashion Example: muscle, epidermis of a leaf - organ: structure consisting of tissues organized to interact and carry out functions Example: heart, a leaf - organ system: organs connected physically or chemically that function together Example: nervous system, aboveground part of a plant - Population: A group of the same species of organism living in the same place and time Example: tigers, multiple acacia trees - Community: All populations that occupy the same region Example: All populations in a savannah - Ecosystem: The living and nonliving components of an area Example: The savannah - Biosphere: Global ecosystem; parts of the planet and its atmosphere where life is possible - Emergent Properties: quality that results from interactions of a system’s components Example: Sheet of endothelial cells fold to form a capillary, only after this occurs is the function of the carrying of blood able to happen--- one action leads to another action which allows for a function 2. Requires energy - Metabolism: biochemical reactions of a cell - chemical reactions collectively occurring and allowing energy to be acquired and used. - Organisms categorized by source of energy and raw materials - Producers: (autotrophs) organism that uses INORGANIC sources of energy and carbon—make own food by extracting energy and nutrients from nonliving sources. Example: plants (multicellular) - Consumers: (heterotrophs) organism that uses ORGANIC sources of energy and carbon — obtain energy and nutrients by eating other organisms, living or dead Example: animals - Decomposers: (heterotrophs) organism that obtains energy and nutrients from wastes and dead organisms, returning inorganic nutrients to the ecosystem Example: Fungi, some bacteria - energy is NOT recycled, but permanently lost as heat — no organism uses heat as energy source - ecosystem dependence on sun (continuous energy stream) 3. Reproduces, grows, develops -Asexual reproduction: genetic information only comes from one parent, and all offspring are (nearly) identical Example: Bacteria reproduce by doubling, then dividing (unicellular), strawberry plant’s “runner’s sprout roots and leaves to reproduce (multicellular) - Sexual reproduction: genetic material from two parent individuals unites to form offspring with new combination of inherited traits Example: animals - genetic diversity ensures survival of some individuals even in change of conditions 4. Homeostasis: process by which a cell or organism maintains its constant internal environment or equilibrium Example: sweating when hot, shivering when cold, circulatory system moving blood from surface of body causing fingertips and lips to turn blue 5. Evolves: (Charles Darwin, 1860): descent with modification from a common ancestor; change in allele frequencies in population overtime - Natural selection: process by which individuals with certain inherited characteristics contribute more offspring to the next generation than do individuals lacking those characteristics, survival of the fittest — individuals with the greatest fitness (REPRODUCTIVE and survival success) Example: The Pygmy seahorse camouflages itself in the coral reef making it harder for predators to find — greatest survival success + reproduces. - Adaption: inherited characteristics or behavior that enables an organism to survive and reproduce successfully in its environment Example: beavers front teeth ideal for gnawing wood, tubular flowers that are shaped so pollination by hummingbirds is easier Section 1.2 The Tree of Life Includes Three Main Branches - Taxonomy: (science of naming things) the biological science of naming and classifying organisms - Species: (basic unit of classification) a distinct “type” of organism, group of anatomically similar populations able to interbreed and produce fertile offspring Example: sapiens - Genus: closely related species Example: Homo - binomial naming: together species and genus denote the (two-word) scientific name of each species - scientific names are always italicized, genus is always capitalized, species is never capitalized Example: Homo sapiens (humans) - Levels of Taxonomic Classification: 1. Domain 2. Kingdom 3. Phylum 4. Class 5. Order 6. Family 7. Genus 8. Species - species are broadly categorized into one of three domains — each domain includes kingdoms - Domain: broadest (most inclusive) taxonomic category - The Tree of Life — 3 Main Branches 1. (Domain) Bacteria – no nucleus in cells, unicellular (prokaryotic) 2. (Domain) Archaea - no nucleus in cells, unicellular (prokaryotic) 3. (Domain) Eukarya- cells have nucleus (membrane around DNA). Algae are protists that are autotrophic (photosynthesize food) - 4 main groups - Protista - Animalia - Fungi - Plantae - Protista: eukaryotic organism that is not a plant, fungus, or animal - Photosynthesis: biochemical reactions that enable organisms to harness sunlight energy to manufacture organic molecules (Sun + H2O + CO2) Example: plants, algae - Kingdom: taxonomic category below domain - Eukarya- In this domain, the animal kingdom are heterotrophs. - Yeast are unicellular fungi. - Complete Kingdom List: 1. Animalia 2. Plantae - Plants are always autotrophs - Multicellular - Autotrophs 3. Fungi - Most are multicellular - Heterotrophs by external digestion 4. Protista - collection of unrelated species - not plants, fungi, or animals 5. Archaea/Archaeabacteria 6. Bacteria/Eubacteria Section 1.3 Scientists Study the Natural World - The Scientific Method: A systematic approach to understanding the natural world based on evidence and testable hypothesis — in general, all scientific inquiry follows a standard process that starts with an observation and then a hypothesis is formed. 1. Observations & questions 2. Hypothesis & Prediction - Hypothesis: untested idea and tentative explanation for something based on one or more observations - becomes widely accepted once supported by several lines of evidence, no reputable data refutes it, and plausible alternative hypothesizes have been rejected. - Prediction: “if-then” statement 3. Data Collection - Experiment: a test of a hypothesis under controlled conditions 4. Analysis & Peer Review - Peer Review: evaluation of scientific results by experts before publication in a journal - Components of Experiments - Well designed experiments include independent, dependent, and standardized variables - Sample size: number of subjects in each experimental group - Variable: any changeable element in an experiment - Independent (Manipulated) variable: what is manipulated— hypothesized influence on a dependent variable Example: A gardener testing the effect of fertilizer on plants— the amount of fertilizer applied to the plants would be the independent variable. - Dependent (Responding) variable: what is measured—response that may be under the influence of an independent variable Example: A gardener testing the effect of fertilizer on plants—the size of the plants would be the dependent variable. - Standardized variable: CONSTANT for ALL in an experiment—any factor held constant for all subjects in an experiment Example: A gardener testing the effect of fertilizer on plants—the standardized variable would be the type of seed/plant used. - Control: untreated group used as a basis for comparison with a treated group in an experiment Example: A gardener testing the effect of fertilizer on plants—the control plants would get no fertilizer. - Dependent variable is always on the Y axis when graphing, the dependent variable is always on the X axis. - Placebo: inert substance used as an experimental control - Statistical significance: unlikely to be attributed to chance - Theory: well-supported scientific explanation - Technology: the practical application of scientific knowledge Lab 1: Scientific Measurement & Metric Conversions - Basic Units of measurement - Meters (m) - measurement of distance - Grams (g) – measurement for mass - Liters (l) – measurement for volume - Seconds (s or sec) – measurement for time - Multiples of the Basic Unit - Fractions of the Basic Unit - giga- (G) - one billion nano- (n) – one billionth - mega- (M) - one million micro- (μ) – one millionth - kilo- (k) - one thousand milli– (m) – one thousandth - hecto- (h) - one hundred centi- (c) - one hundredth - deka- (da) – ten deci- (d) – one tenth
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