STAT 110, Notes for Week 8/18/16
STAT 110, Notes for Week 8/18/16 STAT 110
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by runnergal on Sunday August 21, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to STAT 110 at University of South Carolina taught by Dr. Wilma J. Sims in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 58 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Statistical Reasoning in Statistics at University of South Carolina.
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Date Created: 08/21/16
STAT 110 – Notes for Week of 8/18/16 Chapter 1 o Statistics is the science of data. It is what we do with raw data. o Data comes from individuals (things defined by the data) and variables (features of the individual). Examples of individuals include college students, birds, bacteria, etc. Examples of variables include spending habits on food, migration patterns, growth rates, etc. o Observational studies are when researchers observe individuals regarding certain variables to collect data, without any intention of influencing the data. For example, a team of researchers may observe how employees speak around their coworkers versus how they speak around their bosses. o Sample surveys are a type observational study in which researchers ask a portion of a population questions to collect data, without any intention of influencing the data. Examples include Gallup polls, Pew Research polls, and telephone polls. o A population is the specific group of individuals about which the researchers want data. o A sample is the certain part of the population from which researchers actually collect data. Ethically, the sample should be representative of the population. o A census is a survey that tries to include all members of the population in its sample. For instance, the U.S. Census attempts to survey all members of its population in order to correctly draw congressional districts. o Experiments intentionally impose treatments upon samples in order to observe reactions to certain variables. Researchers aim to determine whether these new treatments change individuals’ reactions. Experiments can include human medical drug testing, looking at the effect of Coke on teeth, etc.