HORT 3440 August 19 Lecture Notes
HORT 3440 August 19 Lecture Notes HORT 3440
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Morgan Notetaker on Sunday August 21, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HORT 3440 at University of Georgia taught by James Affolter in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 5 views.
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Date Created: 08/21/16
8/19/16 Old World Spices Black Pepper (Piper Nigrum) Native to southwest India and Sri Lanka An evergreen vine Pollinated by wind o Don’t try to attract pollinators with flowers, colors, etc. o Reduced to just female parts Fruits are little berries o Turn from green to red when ripe o Reds are mature and have the sugars Three main ways to harvest: o Take green berry, keep in brine, berries stay green and crisp o Take green berry, dry it out, get black pepper o Take red berry, remove flesh, get white pepper Good for white sauces, no black specs in sauce o Harvested by hand Cinnamon (Cinnamomum Verum or Cinnamomum Aromaticum) Native to Sri Lanka/ Ceylon= Cinnamomum Verum o “True cinnamon”, better taste o Take off outer bark and remove inner bark by hand o Use inner bark, called quills Native to China= Cinnamomum Aromaticum o Also called Cassia o Most common cinnamon we see o Uses whole bark, does not remove outer bark o Not as strong or smooth of a flavor as Ceylon cinnamon Way to tell if from Ceylon cinnamon or Cassia: o Iodine will turns starch purple o Outer bark is very starchy o If cinnamon turns purple when in contact with iodine, it is Cassia Harvested by cutting the base, shoots regenerate Nutmeg and Mace (Myristica Frafrans) Native to Indonesia and Moluccas Islands Arils cover the seeds o Attract birds who then disperse the seeds Aril o Bloodroots (Sanguinaria Canadensis, dispersed by ants, GA native) and Pomegranates also make arils The parts of the pomegranate we eat are the arils Nutmeg made from the seed Mace made from the aril Nutmeg trees are dioecius (has separate male and female plants) o In orchards, male branches are grafted onto female plants to provide pollen Nutmeg has myristicin (a hallucinogenic) o Produces painful side effects with risk of nutmeg psychosis o Convulsions, heart palpitations, nausea, dehydration o No specific antidote for these side effects Nutmeg can also be used medicinally o Used for nausea, bloating, diarrhea o Oil is counter-irritant o Indonesians mix with warm milk to help toddlers sleep Cloves (Syzygium Aromaticum) Native to the Moluccas Islands/ Spice Islands An evergreen tree, part of the eucalyptus family Get cloves form the flower bud by hand o Dry the unopened bud Colonial Europeans tried to control it by limiting production o Dutch expel the Portuguese in 1605 to monopolize the trade o Dutch East Indian Company limits production to one island o Anyone illegally planting or trading cloves were killed o 1770: a Frenchman snuggles cloves to Tanzania The plant spreads It is now a widespread tropical crop Clove oil is an anesthetic o Remedy for toothaches Clove cigarettes are popular in Indonesia o Mix cloves with tobacco Ginger (Zingiber Officinale) Native to Asia, grow in shady tropical forests Taken from the rhizome (underground stem) A perennial herb One of the first oriental spices in Europe o Brought over by the Greeks and Romans from Arab traders Used to warm the stomach, aid digestion, decrease nausea and motion sickness o Carminative (dispels gas from the intestinal tract) **Must know Ginger Family characteristics: - Perennial herbs - Aromatic - Thick rhizomes - Herbaceous= no woody tissue - Simple and alternative leaves o Simple leaf= one that’s not broken up into leaflets o Alternate leaves= comes out at alternate positions at the stems - Pantropical distribution= found in tropical regions all across the globe o Most diverse in South East Asia - Grow in shady lowland forests - Species include Ginger, Cardamom seeds, Galangal, Turmeric o Turmeric contains curcumin (anti-inflammatory and anti- cancer property)
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