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This 25 page Class Notes was uploaded by Keaunna Flesner on Sunday August 21, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to KIN 319 at Western Illinois University taught by Professor Radlo in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 5 views. For similar materials see Stress Management in Kinesiology at Western Illinois University.
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Date Created: 08/21/16
Chapter 1 Introduction to Stress The Nature of Stress • Around 1960 Hans Selye proposed that stress is part of the human condition • About 1990 the World Health Organization calls stress “a global epidemic” • By the turn of the 21st century, stress has clearly become a way of life, although not necessary a good one st The Nature of 21 Century Stress • A 24-7 society where everything and everyone is accessible all the time • The rapid rate of change, from technology to economics to family dynamics • Growing threat of terrorism, global warming, other changing world dynamics st The Nature of 21 Century Stress • Greater responsibilities and seemingly less freedom • The number of stressors in our lives appears to be increasing • The amount of leisure time appears to be decreasing A Question of Poor Boundaries • Poor boundaries are a big issue that tend to undermine our lives • People have poor boundaries, thus adding fuel to the stress fire • Boundaries between work and home • Boundaries between technology and privacy • Financial boundaries (massive credit card debt) • Poor boundaries with television, Internet, food, relationships, etc. The Nature of 21 Century Stress II • Research now indicates a solid link between lifestyles and stress-related disease. • As much as 70–85% of all disease and illness is stress-related, from the common cold to cancer, from herpes to hemorrhoids. The Many Faces of Stress • Because of the combinations of stressors, one’s personality, and one’s life experiences, stress becomes a complicated phenomenon. Despite these factors, the many means to cope with stress offer strategies for all these factors. Popular Views of Stress • Eastern philosophies have viewed stress as “an absence of inner peace.” • Western culture has more recently viewed stress as “a loss of control.” • It is also viewed as an inability to cope with problems. Definition Time! A Holistic Medicine View of Stress • Stress is the inability to cope with a perceived or real (or imagined) threat to one’s mental, physical, emotional, and spiritual well-being, which results in a series of physiological responses and adaptations. The Stress Response (Fight-or-Flight Response) • Introduced by Walter Cannon in 1914 • A survival instinct to fight or run • Meant for physical stressors (e.g., running from a burning building) • It appears not to be meant for non- physical stressors such as never-ending traffic, unruly mother-in-laws or the roommate from hell The Stress Response (Fight-or-Flight Response) (continued) • Arousal also happens for nonphysical stressors (mental, emotional, and spiritual). • No matter if the threat is real (car accident) or perceived (a noise at night), the stress response occurs. • The stress response occurs in proportion to the perceived danger. Stages of the Stress Response • Stage 1: Stimuli received by brain through one or more of five senses. • Stage 2: Brain deciphers stimuli (either a threat or as a non-threat) • Stage 3: Body stays aroused until threat is over. • Stage 4: Body returns to homeostasis once the threat is gone. Symptoms of Fight or Flight • Increased heart rate • Increased blood rate • Increased ventilation • Vasodilatation of arteries to body’s periphery (arm and legs) • Increased serum glucose levels Symptoms of Fight or Flight (continued) • Increased free fatty acid mobilization • Increased blood coagulation and decreased clotting • Increased muscular strength • Decreased gastric movement • Increased perspiration to cool body core temperature Chronic Stress • Hans Selye (father of stress research) • Investigated chronic stress • Developed GAS G A S Selye’s Observations • Increase in production of cortisol and other stress hormones • Enlarged adrenal cortex • Atrophy of the lymphatic glands • Decrease in White Blood Cells • Ulcerations of the stomach and colon • Death Three Types of Stress 1. Eustress: good stress (e.g., falling in love) 2. Neustress: neutral stress (e.g., earthquake in remote corner of world) 3. Distress: bad stress (e.g., death of a close friend); acute stress (high intensity, short duration); chronic stress* (low intensity, prolonged time) * Seems to cause the most problems with disease and illness Tend and Befriend Theory • Theory introduced by Shelly Taylor and colleagues in 2000 • Women have a second stress response: Connectedness (an effective coping skill) • Taylor believes it is hardwired into women’s DNA, and revealed through hormones • It has also been referred to as “nest and nurture” • Women still will fight or flee, if need be Stress in a Changing World • Technostress • College Stress • Occupational Stress • Seniors: The Stress of Aging Stress in a Changing World (continued) Technostress • Poor boundaries • Privacy issues • Ethical issues • Compromised family time • Computer dating? • Outdated software Stress in a Changing World (continued) College Stress • Living conditions (roommate “from hell”) • Professional pursuits • Academic deadlines • Financial problems (loans) • Lifestyle behaviors • Sexuality/intimacy issues Stress in a Changing World (continued) Occupational Stress • Commuting/traffic • Working conditions (The boss “from hell”) • Clients/customers “from hell” • Lack of good benefits • Lack of employer loyalty • Job security issues Stress in a Changing World (continued) Stress and the Retired Population • Financial security issues • Social support issues • Health issues • Medicare, Social Security issues • Raising grandkids
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