Developmental Psych-Second Test
Developmental Psych-Second Test PSYC 3120
Popular in Developmental Psychology
Popular in Psychology (PSYC)
This 16 page Class Notes was uploaded by aiy0001 on Sunday August 21, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 3120 at Auburn University taught by Elizabeth Brestan Knight in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 6 views. For similar materials see Developmental Psychology in Psychology (PSYC) at Auburn University.
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Date Created: 08/21/16
Chapter 7: Preschool Years-Physical & Cognitive Development Piaget’s Preoperational Stage 2-7 years of age Lateralization o The process in which certain functions are located more in one hemisphere than the other o Becomes more pronounced during preschool years o Left: reasoning, thinking, speaking o Right: creativity, emotions Symbolic function o Letters standing for sound, a word standing for an object Cognitive advances lead to language advances Egocentrism o The person is focused on his or her own perspective; can’t take the perspective of someone else; not so much selfish! When asking what mountain is closest to the doll, they can’t do that o Asking them what they see when they’re on stage “people” then asking what do the people see, can’t do that o When playing hide and seek-they’ll just cover their eyes, thinking you can’t see them “I can’t see you so that means you can’t see me” Animistic Thinking o Belief that inanimate objects have life-like qualities such as their dolls having hunger or fear o Not the same as imaginary friends-positive thing! Children do not have operations in this stage o Perception bound-concerned with the way something looks o Centration-similar to egocentrism, not being able to take someone else’s perspective o States v. Transformation Focusing on the beginning and end (of a pen falling); not taking into account the steps in the middle o Conservation The knowledge that quantity is unrelated to the arrangement and physical appearance of objects I.e. number, substance (play dough), area (liquid) o Intuitive Thought Primitive reasoning; preschoolers’ curiosity blossoms Piaget’s Concrete Operational Stage 7-12 years of age Characterized by the active and appropriate use of logic Less egocentric o Decentering-can take multiple perspectives Reversibility-processes transforming a stimulus can be reversed, returning it to its original form o A ball of clay that has been squeezed into a long rope can be returned to its original state Piaget & Education An emphasis on discovery learning Sensitivity to children’s readiness to learn Acceptance of individual differences o Gifted=IQ of 130 Children who talked to themselves did not have a good sense of communication One learns best by themselves Consequences of error are not life threatening Vygotsky-Not allowed to travel to conferences, not allowed to share his work with people (From Russia) Egocentric speech o Unlike Piaget, V thought that this was key (children talking to themselves) o Inner speech Private speech Helping to frame your thoughts and to focus Zone of Proximal Development (Figure 7-10) o Level of Independent Performance What the kid can do by themselves o Level of Assisted Performance What they can do with someone helping them out o ZPD is the area between the independent performance level and the assisted level o All children are at different levels One learns best in a social environment o Collectivism-working together Scaffolding: Providing structure and support that helps children to learn (peer and social influences) o PCIT-running commentary o Consequences of errors are life threatening o No trial and error (except for imaginative learning) Cultural Tools: Things that help us to learn o Projector, apple computers o Different cultural tools for different cultures DependentIndependent learner Vygotsky & Education Assisted Discovery o Children working together on projects Peer Collaboration Chapter 8: Social and Personality Development in Preschool Y ears U.S. Child Abuse 5 children are killed by their caretakers every day o Every state has a child-death review board Reviewing which cases need to be attended to more 3 million children are abused and neglected annually Multiple different professions trying to find a common ground about this issue Increased over the years o Could be that we are better at identifying this Usually involve substance abuse Abused children are more likely to be arrested as juveniles Types of Abuse/Neglect Physical o Non-accidental injury to a child under the age of 5 by a parent or caregiver Could include beaten, burned, bitten, shaking (can see in eyes), immersion in scalding water (burns on top part of child’s legs) Hard to determine because all children get bruises, but look out for them inside of the leg or in places where you wouldn’t likely fall onto Look for bruises that are healing at different stages-signal of a red flag Unusual shapes signal objects were used in the physical abuse Spanking is widely advertised to not do anymore, especially now o Behavioral Indicators of Physical Abuse (by the child) Reports injury by parents Gives an unbelievable explanation for injuries Feels deserving of punishment (“well I was acting bad”) Afraid to go home Overly shy, avoids physical contact (learned response)-let the child come up to you; usually hugging from the side or not at all Displays emotional extremes These do not necessarily mean that the child has been abused!! o Authoritarian parents Sexual o Exploitation of a child or teenager for the sexual gratification of another person Sexual comments, fondling, intercourse, child prostitution Difference between a one time thing and this happening regularly o Physical Indicators of Sexual Abuse Somatic complaints (“I have a headache” letting them feel comfortable coming to you but at first for something small) Difficulty walking or sitting Pain or irritation of the genitals Sexually transmitted diseases Pregnancy Unexplained sore throats, yeast, or urinary infections o Behavioral Indicators of Sexual Abuse Advanced sexual knowledge or behavior Could act it out, draw, or describe it Depression, suicidal gestures Frequent, psychosomatic complaints Headaches, stomachaches Chronic running away *something to pay attention to! Abuse of drugs or alcohol Avoidance of undressing in front of others or wearing extra layers Sudden avoidance of certain familiar adults Decline in school performance Neglect o Most common o Chronic failure of a parent or caretaker to provide a child (under 18) with basic needs such as food, clothing, shelter, protection, supervision and even medical care and educational opportunity o Passive; could be late on language development because the parent doesn’t sit down and talk to them as much as they should; interaction is key o Physical Indicators of Neglect Height and weight below age level Inappropriate clothing for weather (no jacket when it’s cold) Poor hygiene, seldom bath time Has not received medical and/or dental care Some dentist places at schools Psychological Maltreatment Cycle of Violence Hypothesis The abuse and neglect children suffer predisposes them as adults to be abusive o Only 1/3 of people who were abused/ neglected go on to abuse/ neglect children of their own Chapter 9: Middle Childhood- Physical and Cognitive Development ADHD-Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder 3-5% of school aged children (boys diagnosed 5- 10 times more often than girls) o One theory is that girls already have a specific subset of ADHD: meaning that they could be sitting quietly but their mind is wandering; it’s easier to pick out the kid running around the classroom Internalizing v. externalizing behavior disorders o Externalizing (Aggressive towards others) You can see the behavior by looking at it Normal intelligence area Runs in families Distraction-as small as the ticking of a clock Etiology (cause) Early theory: Minimal brain dysfunction Current theory: Neurological imbalance, damage to the frontal lobe, neurotransmitter problems Symptoms-these happen to such an extent that they interfere with daily life 1.Inattention 2.Hyperactivity 3.Impulsivity Diagnostic Criteria for ADHD Symptoms must persist for at least 6 months Symptoms should have begun before 7 years old Symptoms present in at least 2 situations o Church and school or home and school o Found that children can do whatever they want in certain settings Disorder impairs functioning o True for a lot of other disorders Depression, anxiety o Must cause problems in school work-time outs Ruling out other disorders: “Is this due to ADHD or something else?” o Could be that they actually have anxiety, schizophrenia (thought disorders), mania (developing bipolar disorder), dissociative disorder (while the abuse is happening to them, their mind goes off into another world), personality disorder (not being able to get along well with others), developmental disorder Coexisting Problems Externalizing Behavior Disorders o Oppositional Defiant Disorder-cursing at parents o Conduct Disorder-worse problem, could prolong into adulthood; violent behavior Learning Disabilities-impacting ability to learn; might need support from teacher; might have poor self-esteem ADHD-Inattention Failing to pay close attention to details- especially in math Makes careless errors Doesn’t appear to listen-especially when the parent is trying to discipline Doesn’t follow through on instructions/chores (goes back to not listening) Has trouble organizing Loses materials i.e. pencils, coats Easily distracted Forgetful Dislikes or avoids sustained mental effort ADHD-Hyperactivity You know it when you see it! Squirms and fidgets Leaves seat when they’re not supposed to Inappropriately runs and climbs on things Has trouble playing quietly Talks excessively Appears “on the move” all the time ADHD-Impulsivity Answers questions before asked Has trouble waiting turn Interrupts or intrudes on others Functioning-of course this doesn’t happen with every kid with ADHD Poor social skills o They keep talking and talking and doesn’t understand that you need to leave Messy appearance o When the family looks better, the job is almost done! Physical aggression o Thinks the kid is picking a fight even if the kid just bumped into you by accident Discipline difficulties Treatment Drugs-many different types! o Ritalin-most famous o Dexedrine Negative to drugs o Doesn’t work for everyone-people take it when they’re not supposed to (taking doses that aren’t right for your body) Behavioral Parent Training o Parent Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT) 2-7 years old (sometimes as old as 12 for children who have been abused-not used to the praise) Child directed Parent directed Teaching the parent how to be the therapist Starting to use skills to increase their child’s positive behavior DO: praise, reflect, enjoyment, describe behavior DON’T: give commands, ask questions, criticize Ignore annoying behavior and stop the play for dangerous/destructive behavior Helping the parent to master criteria o Coding for 5 minutes (every day-“special time”) 10 labeled praises 10 behavior descriptions 10 reflections Discipline-teaching the parent how to give the right commands o Time out as a back up Social Skills Training/Behavior Therapy o How to interact with people o Summer camps for social skills training Behavior Modification Coding Sheet Good for detecting medication- looking for when they are obeying the most Chapter 10: Middle Childhood- Social and Personality Development Lawrence Kohlberg Focusing on justice Cognitive –developmental approach to moral development o Influenced by Piaget-the thought process behind a child’s comment Clinical interview procedure Posed moral dilemmas o “Heinz Dilemma” “Should you steal the drug for your wife?” o Reasoning is more important than content o These stages are universal o You don’t reach the highest stage until adolescence (or not at all!) Level 1: Preconventional Morality (Self-Interest) o Basing their decisions on whatever is right for themselves o Stage 1: Punishment “I’m not going to do this because I’ll get in trouble” o Stage 2: Reward Marshmallow study Eat one now or wait and get 2 “I’ll help because I’ll get something in return” o Stage 1&2 decrease in early adolescence Level 2: Conventional Morality (Social Approval) o Most common o Stage 3: Interpersonal Relations Worried about what other people think o Stage 4: Social Order Worried about following the rules and not breaking the law Reasoning rises over teenage years Level 3: Postconventional Morality (Abstract Ideas) o Stage 5: Social Contract You feel obligated to do something or not to do it o Stage 6: Universal Rights Ghandi, MLK, very few people make it here Doing something because you know it’s right, it doesn’t matter what other people say Mindful of actions at all times Criticisms o Kohlberg did all his work with males! Therefore, it can’t apply to everyone! Moral judgment is not the same as moral behavior Moral reasoning is highly correlated with IQ, educational level, and perspective taking skills (brought up in looking at why something is right or wrong) Child rearing practices help to enhance moral reasoning Authoritative parents are best at this Carol Gilligan Female moral development o Compassionate concern Stage 1: Orientation toward individual’s survival Stage 2: Goodness as self-sacrifice Stage 3: Morality of non-violence o Highest level Criticisms o Assumes that women will have children (but some women don’t want to have kids!) Sense of Self Young people focus on external characteristics (“I have brown hair”) and not so much focused on inner qualities o Kimora displayed this well by wanting to help others o Could be due to limited interactions with others Self-Concept: i.e. where Allie described herself as being a good athlete and loved softball o Influences on Self-Concept Academic, social, emotional, physical (appearance and performance) o Self-Esteem: emotional ties where they look at how the feel about themselves (part of the self-concept) Influences on Self-Esteem Child rearing practices o Authoritative parenting (warm parents who also have control; balanced); typically have children who have good self- esteem Attributions (i.e. You walk by someone you know, say hello, and they don’t say hi back) Coloring how you see the world o Mastery-oriented o Learned helplessness “No matter what I try, I’m going nowhere” o Parents tend to have attributions about their child Low self-esteemactual failurehigh anxietylow performance expectationsback to low self-esteem (circle) Downward social comparisons: Comparing themselves to someone they think of as lower than them as a way to make themselves feel better Self-efficacy: Their ability to make friends (i.e. if they feel like they don’t know how to make friends, they have low self-efficacy) Social competence: Their ability to get along with others; how well the child communicates with other children and even adults Guest Speakers Allie (9)-drew flower and house with tree (more developed), drew herself, the house that she lives in now, sister and her room shown; understood conservation slightly Kimora (6)-drew family, slumber party with sister; had imaginary friend; difficulty with conservation (the one with the tallest had more); higher level of moral reasoning (stealing is badwhat would happen to the person who lost their wallet)
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