Developmental Psych-Third Test
Developmental Psych-Third Test PSYC 3120
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This 24 page Class Notes was uploaded by aiy0001 on Sunday August 21, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 3120 at Auburn University taught by Elizabeth Brestan Knight in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 6 views. For similar materials see Developmental Psychology in Psychology (PSYC) at Auburn University.
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Chapter 11: Adolescence- Physical and Cognitive Development Piaget’s Formal Reasoning Abstractions Propositions Ideals Thinking About Thinking o Adolescent egocentrism The state of self-absorption in which the world is viewed as focused on ones self Imaginary Audience-Self- consciousness; thinking that people are looking at you when they’re really not; thinking that other people are paying as much attention to them as they are to themselves Personal Fable “it happens to other people but not me” What happens to them is unique and special; it happens to no one else Puberty in Girls Menarche: The onset of maturation and the most obvious signs of puberty in girls In poorer, developing countries, menstruation begins later than in more economically advanced countries o Girls who are better nourished and healthier are more apt to start menstruation at an earlier age Girls who are more athletic start puberty later Puberty in Boys Genitals begin to grow more rapidly at 12 and reach adult size about 3-4 years later Spermarche: A boy’s first ejaculation Maturation Early o Boys: More popular, more positive self- concept; more apt to have difficulties in school and to be involved with substance abuse because of their bigger size, they are more likely to hang out with (older) guys o Girls: Obvious changes in body can cause uncomfort; ridicule at a young at for developing earlier than others; sought out for potential dates however sometimes they may not be socially ready Germany: early maturing girls have higher self-esteem Late o Boys: Worse than girls; smaller and therefore less attractive; disadvantage when it comes to sports; grow up to have assertiveness and insightfulness o Girls: Fewer emotional problems Metacognition: The knowledge that people have about their own thinking processes and their ability to monitor their cognition; adolescents are much more apt at understanding their own mental processes Chapter 12: Adolescence-Social and Personality Development Major Depressive Episode 20-35% of males and 25-40% of females have experienced depressed moods Good news-only 3% of teens are severely depressed o Criteria: 2 weeks of either depressed mood or the loss of interest in nearly all activities (activities that used to be fun for them) also significant distress in social, academic and/ or other important areas of functioning o In teens, this can look like irritable moods Appetite is usually reduced Insomnia Negative view of self, of the world, and the future Associated Features of Depression for Teens Academic problems Conduct disorder (violent, delinquent behaviors (more socially acceptable for teen boys) ADHD, Anxiety disorders, substance abuse, and eating disorders o Common for disorders like these to co- occur Can predict future problems-missing out on key developmental milestones Hereditary component-parents could be creating a depressing environment (boring home life, restricts interactions from social world-isolating family) Environment Gender gap-until you get to the middle school period, it’s girls who are more likely to report depression o Women are more likely to seek help for depression (socially acceptable for women to be more emotional) Female gender role o Women are more likely to have post- partum depression over men Suicide Rate of suicide increases significantly during teen rdars This is the 3 leading cause of death after vehicle accidents and homicides o Parasuicidal thoughts regarding vehicle accidents-a cry for help, thinking about wanting to die White males have the highest complete suicide rates while women have the highest attempted suicides o Methods: firearms, suffocation, poisoning o Teens who have gotten in trouble with the law, teens who don’t have a big social network and feel disconnected from community, teens who experience some kind of embarrassment (imaginary audience) Suicide Risk Assessments Family (Risk) Factors (Relating to Suicide) Parental emotional problems Martial problems Perfectionism Common Preceding Events Leading to Suicide Rejection by romantic partner Humiliation after antisocial acts Careful Planning-giving people their pets or electronics Another suicide-cluster suicides o Seeing the love and support that the suicide gives someone and think that the same thing will happen to themmakes them more prone to commit suicide Risk Factors Mental Health Substance Abuse-easier to abuse when depressed Child Maltreatment Disruptive behavior *In adulthood, there are certain professions that are at risk Prevention Target those risk factors School counselors-so important! Peer support groups Telephone hotlines Suicide Interventions Stay with them! Don’t leave them alone Listen Express sympathy Obtain professional help-911 Remove any weapons that they could hurt themselves with, even medications What can YOU do? LISTEN o You’re there as a resource, not as anything else Do NOT remind teens that life is worse off for other people o Could lead them to not feeling comfortable talking anymore Chapter 13: Early Adulthood: Physical and Cognitive Development 40 % graduate in 4 years; 30% never graduate; 30% eventually graduate, but not in 4 years Higher drop out rate for African American students (up to 70%) o No one in family has gone to college before (hard transition) o Academic Disidentification: Disconnect between professor and student; feels like they don’t fit in with the school scene since they aren’t doing well Minority students are increasing in enrollment African Americans will increase by 13% (mostly females) Hispanics by 22% Whites by 6% William Perry His view is that people change by going to college Dualistic Thinking: Concrete thinking-true or false; one way or another o Starting point of college o Reporting back what other people said; facts Multiple Thinking: Experts don’t have all the answers! The students’ own thinking is valid too! Taking thoughts from multiple perspectives o The goal of college (end point) o Critical Thinking: “This is what I think” Benefits of College Attendance Better self-understanding-what your beliefs are o Firmer sense of identity-knowing your career path Enhanced self-esteem-feeling like you accomplished something Type of College Does not Matter-You can (usually) get the same opportunities everywhere! o Personal involvement o Diversity of campus setting-looking out for new opportunities o Residential living-usually enhances experiences o Effort and willingness to participate in class-tailoring your education to YOU when you ask questions o Instruction that is challenging o Taking multiple courses that relate to each other o Extensive contact with faculty-research labs! Trends in Undergraduate Education Trying to move away from lecture based classes o Problem based learning (research methods class!) Service Learning-going out and volunteering in somewhere and then writing a paper about it to get class credit (Little Hapie Tree) Community and Civic Engagement Minor o Bidirectional learning process Learning Communities Money Talks 3% of adults with college education live below the poverty line Gender Gap Women make up 13% of doctorates Women earn 70 cents for every dollar that men earn o African American women earn 62 cents for every dollar men make o Hispanic women earn 52 cents for every dollar men make Non-Traditional Students-25 years or older (36 % in Community Colleges) Reasons for going back to school o Economy o Job requirements Graphic design with the development with computers Problems with being in College 1.) STRESS 2.) Situational 3.) Relationships Reasons for Dropping Out College expenses Marriage, death of a parent Academic difficulties Difficult transition First Year Adjustment Reaction 50% have one psychological issue o Depression, loneliness, anxiety Piaget-focused on STAGES Formal Operational Stage (Last stage) o Abstract thinking o 12-15 years old o Highest stage that someone can obtain! Which is not true… o Hypothetico-Deductive reasoning: Fuller reasoning; ability to come up with hypotheses Schaie The way you USE knowledge changes over time 1.) Acquisitive Stage a.Learning FACTS b.Childhood and adolescence 2.) Achieving Stage a.Early Adulthood b.Applying knowledge 3.) Responsible Stage a.Not just responsible for themselves but for others b.A time of pressure! 4.) Executive Stage a.Responsibilities become more complex b.Broader perspectives 5.) Reintegrative Stage a.Picking what YOU like to do; picking and choosing; aka retirement b.Late adulthood Chapter 13: Gender and the College Y ears Gender Gap in Enrollment More women than men attend college-and growing! Women receive 133 bachelor’s degrees compared to 100 for males for all students o 166/100 for African Americans Men usually have more opportunities to earn right out of HS o Military, trade unions, jobs that require physical strength Women often have better high school grades Gender and College Performance Education and social sciences have mainly women Engineering, physical sciences, and math (STEM) have mainly men o Incoming freshman class intending to major in STEM 33.5% of females More likely to drop out than men o Kids is a big factor as well as families 45.8% of males Gender Stereotypes o Women’s lifestyles o Stereotypes: a widely held but fixed and oversimplified image/ idea of a particular type of person, thing, or group of people o Also operate in education and societies (What they should be doing) o More likely to choose careers that have been populated by women Major Choice-thinking that they choose the easier degrees (the Mrs. Degree) o Academic ability o “Different” reasons for going to college Gender Differences in Expectations Men are more likely to think of themselves as above average in overall academic and mathematic ability, competitiveness, and emotional health (?) o Experiencing the same emotions but we express emotions differently o Figure 13-12 Women expect to earn less than males Classroom Treatment Male AND female professors treat students differently! And a lot of times they don’t even realize it o Professors call on men in class more frequently than women o Make more eye contact with men than women Hurts women because they don’t feel engaged o Men are more likely to receive extra help from professors o Males receive more positive reinforcements than women Impacts of Stereotypical Beliefs Sexism o Hostile sexism: treatment of women that is overtly harmful o Benevolent sexism: women are placed in stereotyped roles that appear on the surface to be positive; seems at first to be beneficial to women; “you’re so much better at this than I am” A professor compliments your looks and not how well you did on the quiz The woman feels as if she’s not being taken seriously Can be just as harmful as hostile sexism!! Academic Disidentification: A lack of personal identification with an academic domain o For women-math and science o African Americans-more generalized across academic domains Stereotype Threat: Obstacles to performance that come from awareness of the stereotypes held by society about academic abilities o Nerves while taking a test Women may perform not as well o “I’m a female I can’t do engineering” The stereotype is rightleads to the academic disidentification Krendl, Richeson, Kelley, and Heatherton Study 2008 Examined the neural processes engaged when women performed math tasks in the presence and absence of stereotype threats o Absence group performed better o ST showed heightened activation in areas associated with processing negative social information Implicit Association est-Smeding 2012 Studying STEM males and females and then education and social sciences males and females o Humanities women had stronger connections to the stereotypes Gender STEM Why is there a gender gap? o Social reasons o Spatial Cognition: acquisition, organization, utilization, and revision, of knowledge about spatial environments (i.e. navigating the Haley Center) Higher spatial abilities are related to high math achievement; therefore men tend to have higher math performances Hindrance for people wanting to get into engineering Allows us to interact with our environment in meaningful ways Sex Differences Humans and even animals too! Males are found to consistently to outperform females on spatial ability WHY? o Evolution-Sexual Selection Sexual selection: natural selection favoring traits that increase mating successes Leads to sex differences in a species “Ardent males and choosy females” o Range Size Hypothesis: Sex differences in spatial ability developed due to range size and mating systems; covering a larger area to find mates Females travel short distances Men range more widely in attempt to mate with many females o Whoever ranges more, they are going to have a higher spatial ability Gaulin and Fitzgerald Study 1989 Demonstrated the importance of mating patterns in sex differences in spatial abilities in rats In polygamist species had more spatial ability o Humans are most similar Vashro and Cashdan Study in 2014 Studying hunter gatherer populations Men had larger spatial ability-ranged more and had more children with more females David Geary 1995 (Part of Spatial Cognition) Evolved through schooling (traditional gender roles) Empathizing and Systemizing Theory 2 core cognitive styles that males and females evolve o Empathizing: emotions Females score higher o Systemizing: technical, natural, spatial Males score higher Socialization hypothesis o Better empathizing may improve better care of children o Systemizing may help men become good hunters and good with the use of tools Billington, Baron-Cohen, Wheelwright 2007 When sex doesn’t matter for major choice Systemizing profile-higher on sciences Empathizing-higher on humanities Chapter 14: Social Personality Development in Early Adulthood Relationships: Interpersonal Attraction “Birds of a feather flock together” Similarity Study Theodore Newcomb, 1961 Male undergrads filled out questionnaires about attitudes with their roommates Dissimilar attitudes=lack of friendship Hill, Rubin, and Peplau, 1976 Dating couples tend to resemble each other in age, intelligence, educational plans, religion, physical attractiveness, height, and attitudes about sexual behavior Principle of Homogamy Tendency to marry someone who is similar in age, race, education, religion, and other basic demographic characteristics Proximity Closeness in physical distance are where we make friends Study of Festinger et al. (1950) Random assignment to apartments As the distance increased in apartments, the less likely they were to be friends o Social media can help! What do we look for in a potential mate? Cultural differences o United States: Men and women both rank mutual attraction as primary characteristics o China: good health for men and emotional stability and maturity for women o South Africa: emotional stability for men and dependable character for women Gender Differences in Mate Selection Men: Tend to pick female mates who are younger than them and also attractive Women: T end to pick males who are older, ambitious and industrious Marriage Trends Median age is 27 years old for men Median age is 25 years old for women Evolutionary Perspective: David Buss Men seek out younger, fertile women who have a high reproductive capacity Women seek out men who are able to provide resources that will promote survival of the child (economically well-off men) Marriage Gradient Men tend to marry women who are younger, smaller, and lower in status o Bottom of the barrel-men who cannot find someone of low enough status to marry Women tend to marry men who are slightly older, larger, and higher in status o Cream of the crop-women who are of higher status than anyone in their available pool of men Mate Selection: The Filtering Model People screen potential mates through selectively finer gradients Sternberg’s Triangular Theory Love is made up of 3 components: intimacy, passion, and decision/commitment o Intimacy: Encompasses feelings of closeness, affection, and connectedness o Passion: Comprises of motivational drives related to sex, physical attraction, and romance o Decision/Commitment: Embodies both the initial cognition that one loves another and the longer-term determination to maintain that love Combinations of the 3 Components of Love Non-love o Intimacy: Absent o Passion: Absent o Commitment: Absent Liking o Intimacy: Present o Passion: Absent o Commitment: Absent Infatuated Love o Intimacy: Absent o Passion: Present o Commitment: Absent Empty Love o Intimacy: Absent o Passion: Absent o Commitment: Present Romantic Love o Intimacy: Present o Passion: Present o Commitment: Absent Compassionate Love o Intimacy: Present o Passion: Absent o Commitment: Present Fatuous Love o Intimacy: Absent o Passion: Present o Commitment: Present Consummate Love o Intimacy: Present o Passion: Present o Commitment: Present Career Selection: Ginzberg’s Stages 1.) Fantasy Period a.Lasts until about 11 years old b.Career choices are made and discarded without regard to skills, abilities, or available job opportunities i. Instead, choices are made solely on what sounds appealing i.e. a child wants to be a rockstar despite the fact that he cannot sing at all 2.) Tentative Period a.Taking practical considerations into account i. Thinking more practically about various job requirements and how their own abilities might fit them b.Also consider personal goals-how a particular job might satisfy them 3.) Realistic Period a.Early Adulthood b.Exploring specific career options through actual experience or through training *Critics have stated that Ginzberg oversimplifies the process of choosing a career *Ginzberg’s subjects were from middle socioeconomic levels Guest Speakers Kyle: 16; HS; likes science, not math; very much about his appearance; concerned about hair (30-40 min. shower); didn’t think his friends would mind the stain Nick: 14; MS; likes science, not math; concerned about shoes (colorful shoes); would change shirt if there was stain; lied about having a girlfriend *Stain on the shirt *Drug use in school *Moral decisions