Behavior Therapy-Test 2
Behavior Therapy-Test 2 PSYC 3970
Popular in Special Topics: Behavior Therapy
Popular in Psychology (PSYC)
This 10 page Class Notes was uploaded by aiy0001 on Sunday August 21, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 3970 at Auburn University taught by Frank Weathers in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 2 views. For similar materials see Special Topics: Behavior Therapy in Psychology (PSYC) at Auburn University.
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Date Created: 08/21/16
Behavior Therapy Chapter 8: Respondent Conditioning (Classical or Pavlovian Conditioning) *Respondent conditioning-More of a passive process An unconditioned stimulus makes you respond involuntarily and reflexively Respondent behaviors are elicited by antecedent stimuli and therefore respondent conditioning involves the manipulation of antecedent stimuli Respond in the administration of the S* o Behaviors involve bodily responses that have survival value US+CSNS o MOST effective when the NS immediately precedes the US (trace and delay conditioning) o Higher order conditioning can occur when the NS is paired with an already established CS *Operant conditioning-Actively putting your behavior out there in the world All behavior can be shaped by its consequences You have a choice in your behaviors Occurs when a behavior is reinforced in the presence of an S^D and the behavior is then more likely to occur in the future when the S^D is present Unconditioned Reflexes Process: USUR (automatic and usually related to survival) Habituation: responses tend to go down over time when you are exposed to the stimulus over and over Respondent Conditioning Outcome: CSCR (Similar to the UR elicited by the US) *Have seen this already through reinforcers and punishers Respondent Extinction Presenting the CS repeatedly in the absence of the US in order for learning to occur If you do that long enough, the CS will no longer elicit a CR Spontaneous Recovery The extinguished CS may come back again after a while *Never really goes away! It’s just learning and learning on top of it until you’re exposed to that fear (or stimulus) again Conditioned Emotional Responses-Very important to classical conditioning! *Smells are directly linked to emotional reactions Mostly concerned with the negative responses-learning to deal with the fear responses that are not going to bring about any danger whatsoever or can also be positive Fear can become a motivating operation Emotions often tie in (like fear) to the S* DiscriminationGeneralization *Positive punishment is ultimately linked with negative reinforcement* Factors that influence respondent conditioning: Intensity of the US or NS Temporal relationship between the NS and US Contingency between the NS and US Number of pairings The person’s previous exposure to the NS Examples: Food Aversion Learning: -Lithium chloride on animals -Walk right by the plant and it’s their first meal of the day -Two eat little -Unfamiliar or makes sick -Go to the plant they were not poisoned by Chapter 9: Shaping Behavioral Acquisition (acquiring) Strategies *Learning new (good) behaviors that replaces the bad; growing adaptive behaviors-Using reinforcement and extinction (previous successive approximations) are put on extinction Shaping: Differential reinforcement (some behaviors are getting reinforced and some are extinguished) of successive approximations (starting with baby steps; steps that get closer and closer to the target behavior; behaviors that are increasingly more similar to the target behavior) of a target behavior o Inefficient—have to wait for them to volunteer the behavior When is Shaping Used? o 3 Therapeutic Uses-Generally to develop a target behavior that the person does not currently exhibit Develop new topographies of a behavior Develop new dimensions of an already existing behavior: Topography, latency, frequency, duration, or amplitude Reinstate old behaviors that are not occurring o When instructions, modeling, and prompting are not effective o TAKES TIME o ESPECIALLY teaching a complex behavior—language is a key one Ex. Increasing the complexity of Lego shapes constructed by young children o Ex. Increasing the time on a task (from a few seconds15 min. by a distractible preschooler Most problem behaviors arise from accidently shaping a behavior o When a mild problem behavior is put on extinction and the problem worsens during an extinction burst, the parent may then reinforce the worse behavior o If this process continues a number of times, the problem behavior may become progressively worse Examples of Shaping o Language development o Getting a rat to press a lever Shaping Problem Behaviors—any operant behavior is susceptible to being shaped o Tantrums/SIB o Parents yelling Using Shaping o Is shaping the preferable procedure in a certain situation? What is the end behavior, then back it up by breaking down each piece o Choosing the shaping steps Making sure the steps aren’t too big because if so, the person won’t be able to do it! o FAILURE FREE TEACHING-always looking forward to the next reinforcement and the next success Choosing the reinforcer-having several different ones if the training is going to go on for a while Watch out for satiation-people grow tired of something! o 80% successful-raise the bar to the next step Step 1 is now on extinction 1. Define the target behavior 2. Determine whether shaping is the most appropriate procedure 3. Identify the starting behavior 4. Choose the shaping steps-which are the successive approximations 5. Choose a reinforcer to use in the shaping procedure 6. Differentially reinforce each successive approximation 7. Move at a proper pace through the shaping steps Abused mule example: Shaping Reinforcing after each step the mule takes Line on the barn floor is the farthest he’ll go Clicker training: let the animal volunteer himself! UR: Treats CR: Everything else! Affection/praise, clicker Classically conditioned fear responsesoperant conditioning avoidance responses 1. Shoving (Caesar with Cain-old fashioned way) 2. Training an incompatible behavior Internal justification External reasons are TERRIBLE for motivation Internal is very powerful! If this is the case, you’re going to stick with something a whole lot longer-THE BEST! Getting people to make their own commitment Cognitive Dissonance: Creating a need state, the desire to be consistent (S*)-Words matching up with your behavior Values + Behavior-What to do in behavior modification? Change behavior Or change your values-very rare Lasting change: creating an internal focus for change by focusing on motivating operations, because YOU want to Chapter 10: Prompting and Transfer of Stimulus Control Stimulus Control-Getting a behavior on cue, when you want them to perform the behavior Sometimes you have the cue but the behavior never occurs! Prompting: MAKING the behavior occur in the presence of the cue SO we can reinforce it The behavior of another person delivered after the presentation of the S^D, a change in the S^D, or the addition of a stimulus with the S^D Used to increase the likelihood that a correct behavior will occur in the correct situation in the presence of the S^D Prompt hierarchy: explicitminimal support (start with the lowest level-and you can always add on) o Minimal: pause prompt o Contextual Teaching new behaviors Used by everyone! Antecedent-Comes before the behavior and makes sure the behavior actually occurs when the cue is given o Supplement, a learning aid S^D + prompt R S^R Types of prompts o Response-From another person Verbal, gestural, modeling (doing the behavior first and then having the person follow you), physical, visual, positional (positioning of the cards) Physical: hand over hand Gestural: looking or pointing Verbal: directive, immediacy after question Ex. Teaching you how to hit a tennis ball o Stimulus-From the environment itself Within stimulus prompt: Makes it easier to exhibit the target behavior Child example: Ball (dead ball so it doesn’t fly away), court (smaller court), racket (tiny racket) Extra stimulus prompt: Something else going on in the environment or behavior from another person that makes it easier for the target behavior to occur on cue Any kind of learning trial you can come up with Tennis example: using cones to guide behavior Something EXTRA Learning Trial S^Dprompting the correct responseproviding a reinforcer Fading the prompt so they can do the behavior all by themselves as well as fade the reinforcers o Fade intensity of prompt o Test competence at next level o Gradual Prompt delay: Waiting it out so all that is left is the behavior occurring very nicely in the S^D o A period elapses between the presentation of the S^D and the delivery of the prompt Antecedents: Discriminative stimuli, motivating operations, prompts S^D: Always going to be there! Prompts: Struggling to perform a behavior in the context of the S^D; a push in the right direction A struggle could mean that you’re still in shaping or you’re not doing the behavior when you’re supposed to Transfer of Stimulus Control: The elimination of the prompt to get the behavior under stimulus control Fading and prompt delay Chaining-Very similar to shaping 1. Identify target behavior 2. Train a complex chain of behaviors a. Break down the training steps b. If steps are too big, the learner will be failing c. If steps are too small, learner will be frustrated 3. Train until the final behavioral sequence 4. Forward chaining: keep adding links 5. Starting at the end (Backward Chaining): every learning trial, they are learning the final behavior and getting that ultimate reinforcer *Great advantage! 6. Can change at any point in the sequence (forward or backward) since you are getting feedback from the kid! -Behavior affects the environment-an operant behavior operates on the environment -The environmental change becomes the S^D for the next behavior- becomes an antecedent Example: Shoe tying Forward chaining: holding laces, crossing them over, pulling it through the loop, make a bunny ear Backward chaining: starting at the bunny ear -Tennis example: every single learning trial you hit the ball over the net-the ultimate reinforcer is built in every single time! *Knowing what is developmentally appropriate for your population *Waiting it out! Hand over hand guidance is good but giving the participant time is great! Reinforcing resilience and mastery! Chapter 12: Behavioral Skills Training Procedures Used to teach new behaviors; teaching a variety of important skills Heavy emphasis on role playing-practice when not under pressure Learning is experiential In certain situations, it is good to bring out empathy Groups are good because of the support-more on the behavioral side Only works with high-level learners (older kids and adults) Prompting, chaining, and shaping are still there; we are just pulling back and bringing learning to a higher level Learner has to be able to follow instructions and imitate models Examples: Teaching parenting skills, teaching assertiveness (in the work place), teaching abduction prevention skills (to kids), teaching social skills (with ALL kinds of groups), mainly ANY kind of behavioral skill Components: A. Instructions MUST have credibility Opportunity to practice Use modeling when necessary Must have the learner’s attention Provides important aspects of the behavior are described for the learner B. Modeling Much easier to SHOW better than explaining something Some kind of status (good looking, rich, intelligent, doesn’t matter, just SOMETHING!) o Similarity: Not exactly because the saying “it takes one to treat one” is not necessarily true But again if you’re selling something, sometimes you need to BS Learn from behavior that’s being reinforced Very important to view their behavior in the real world (need to be as close as possible) o Hidden cameras, classroom observations-hard because if the patient knows they are being observed, their behavior will most likely change Seeing how to execute the behavior and then getting the opportunity to rehearse (similar to a natural situation) C. Rehearsal (as often as needed) D. Feedback Motivational Interviewing: Do NOT jump on someone who says, “they have a problem” They may be acknowledging it but not committing to it yet -Doesn’t assume that the person is ready to change (working assessment is assessing where you are at and how you are ready for change) Getting the person to “buy in” on change-all it does is frustrate yourself and your client SELL the change DON’T teach someone to do something that doesn’t want to do it!! MINIMIZE reactance-don’t want to get into an argumentswitch into reflective listening Nice but also being active Wanting to create an internal focus for change-realizing that part of you is interested in change o Anything after that, your behavior is committed to change Manipulation is GOOD Non-Motivational Approach (with the doctor) -Not a question of having the right information, because she did! -Do NOT lay in on them (easy to scold people) -Using punishment to change a behavior (applying an aversive) -Patient showed reactance (resisting) BST Procedures 1. Identify and define the skills to teach (already done-have already defined the behaviors that are problematic)-Must identify motivation for change 2. Identify all the relevant S^D’s (individualized-what are the end point behaviors-making the parent as a source of reinforcement) a. What are the situational cues that pull for the bad behavior 3. Assess the learners skills to develop a baseline (lets the mom do her thing-In a lab, but still defined as realistic) a. “Let’s draw” b. A skill deficit-not a bad parent! Just didn’t get taught well! Or doing what feels natural to her 4. Begin training with the easiest skill first and build on that-Want the learner to learn something a. Let the child lead b. Avoid asking questions c. Avoid criticisms (no, don’t stop, quit, not) d. Avoid giving instructions e. P-Praise, compliment i. Unlabeled ii. Labeled-very specific (do this if you want to change behavior-a clicker) f. R-Reflect back talk; repeat what she says (results in the child talking more-knows she’s being listened to) i. Great for the child’s speech g. I-Imitate play (exact-very flattering!) h. D-Description (neutral attention-running commentary-all needs are being met) i. Behavioral descriptions-builds the child’s attention span 1. Simple descriptions i. E-Enthusiasm 5. Describe the behavior (instructions-doesn’t necessarily have to follow through, just be able to look at the big picture) and model it in a realistic role-play context a. Differential reinforcement: Putting some behaviors on reinforcement b. Extinction: Withholding the reinforcement (ex. turning around and not playing with her kid) 6. Allow the learner to rehearse the behavior in the certain role-play context a. Some people don’t do well with praise so that’s why we have to look at the results of the parent-child interaction 7. Provide praise (labeled praise) for correct performance and further instructions (or feedback-almost all is positive, not really constructive) for improvement a. Have to learn to tailor your feedback for each client 8. Repeat until the learner performs the behavior successfully without assistance 9. Advance to the next behavior and repeat steps 5-8 (Describe, model, reinforce) 10. Program the situation for generalization When to use BST: When the learner can benefit from instructions and modeling and does not need more intensive training procedures (like chaining) to learn the skills Antecedents (instructions and modeling)Behavior (rehearsal)Reinforcing consequence (feedback-may also involve further instructions that act as a prompt for the behavior in the next rehearsal)
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