Behavior Therapy-Test 3
Behavior Therapy-Test 3 PSYC 3970
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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by aiy0001 on Sunday August 21, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 3970 at Auburn University taught by Frank Weathers in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 2 views. For similar materials see Special Topics: Behavior Therapy in Psychology (PSYC) at Auburn University.
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Date Created: 08/21/16
Behavior Therapy Chapter 13: Functional Assessment Functional intervention: Extinction, differential reinforcement, and antecedent manipulations Behavior is lawfully related to the environment Treatment Process: Decreasing Problem Behaviors 1. Increase or decrease the defined target behaviors a. Decrease: Punishment and extinction or reinforce a competing behavior b. Interview and observation-problem is that you’re limited to insight, problems with memory, or you might be embarrassed and lie i. Interview more with parents ii. Observation more with kids-real behavior that occurs in the real world 2. Initiate data collection 3. Complete functional assessment a. Hypotheses about antecedents and consequences b. Pinning down what the specific consequence was c. If you feel like your hypothesis is effective enough, you can go onto treatment d. Know that behavior is situational specific for each individual i. Don’t care about traits-care about the cues that pull for different behaviors 4. Develop and implement treatment 5. Evaluate a. Effectiveness and implementation fidelity b. Was the treatment effective? Decrease or increase in behavior? c. Plan for maintenance generalization for regular home life d. If treatment didn’t work, go back to functional assessment Behavioral Model A behavior they come to a therapist about something that’s irritating themselves or someone else ABC Consequences: reinforcement, extinction, punishment Antecedents: S^D (environmental situation), S delta, motivating operations (affecting the state of the individual), prompts (but usually used when already in training), conditioned emotional responses Is the problem behavior related to medication, medical condition, pain, discomfort (bullying? Emotional problems?), problems with sleep Behavior is influenced by competing behaviors (concurrent behaviors) Desirable v. undesirable behaviors Ex. Christian’s mind shuts down that he’s not able to see other options o Only one thing to do and that’s to tantrum Choice of the behavior becomes very important! What to Asses? Creating a recipe 1. Identify the antecedents (A) a. What are the situations (that are guaranteed) in which the tantrum is more likely to happen? 2. The behavior (B)-Problem and alternative behavior a. What do you want the child to do instead of the problem behavior? 3. The consequences (C) / Reinforcers a. What does the behavior produce for them? i. Christian: Pizza and ice cream, no set bed time b. If you can’t spot anything, be completely neutral! c. Look at schedules of reinforcement, magnitude of reinforcement, and immediacy of reinforcement d. What consequences are social and automatic Categories of Reinforcement-Functions of Problem Behaviors Consequences Social positive reinforcement o Attention, praise, reactions, activities, things Know that it is mediated by others Social negative reinforcement o Escape from tasks, activities, and interactions Mediated by others Automatic positive reinforcement-No other person is involved, reinforcing to yourself; source: behavior + values (for all automatic reinforcement) o Hard to change! o Sensory simulation o Pleasure is automatic o Not mediated by others Automatic negative reinforcement o Relief from pain, anxiety, or an aversive stimuli A functional assessment should always be the first step in developing a treatment for a problem behavior Looking at the antecedents and consequences *functionally related to the problem behavior* May be conducted through indirect assessment, direct observation, and experimental or functional analysis o Indirect: Gathering information through people who know the client well and are familiar with the problem behavior by using interviews or questionnaires o Direct: Observe and record antecedents, behavior, and consequences as they occur in the natural context Can be done using a descriptive method, checklist method, or an interval method ABC Observation o Experimental: Manipulation of antecedents and consequences to determine their influence on the behavior Allows you to establish a functional relationship between the antecedents and consequences to the problem behavior Chapter 14: Applying (Operant) Extinction -Withholding the reinforcer in order to decrease a behavior (incredibly powerful and difficult to apply systematically) First use functional and non-aversive treatments-Always situation specific! Extinction-Hardly use by itself but have to also teach the kid what to do and not just what not to do o Have limits! Not a lot you have control over Differential Reinforcement-Use with extinction o A replacement behavior; the to do behavior Antecedent Manipulations and Consequence Manipulations- Arranging the environment in which good behaviors can occur and bad ones cannot due to the environmental cues Using Extinction 1. Define problem behaviors-someone has to complain about the behavior! 2. Conduct functional assessment to identify the reinforcer for the problem behavior 3. Now eliminate the reinforcer for the problem behavior a. Have you identified the reinforcer? Extinction must be functional b. Can you eliminate the reinforcer? Is the reinforcer under your control? If not, it’s not going to work! i. Works with pets and kids ii. Teachers are iffy because they have a little control c. Is it safe to use extinction? Is the behavior dangerous? Have to account for extinction bursts as well d. Can you tolerate an extinction burst? How bad will the behavior get? i. Could be related to dangerous behavior e. Can you be consistent? Will everyone use extinction (all the time)? 4. Using intermittent schedules once training has occurred a. Extinction is more resistant to this! Also getting reinforced for waiting b. Now don’t know the difference between the extinction and the intermittent schedule 5. Use differential reinforcement a. Reinforcing alternative behaviors to replace the problem behavior and therefore, the problem behavior is less likely to occur again in the future b. Very common and very powerful method of changing 6. Take steps to promote generalization and maintenance a. Wanting the behavior to occur in a variety of situations and without reinforcement Chapter 15: Differential Reinforcement Types: 1. Differential Reinforcement of Alternative Behavior (DRA) a. Behavioral excess-tantrums, physical aggression, SIB- putting this on extinction and not reinforcing these behaviors b. Shaping a new behavior, an alternative behavior i. Reinforcer is delivered for desirable behavior 1. With this, you don’t have enough time to focus on the bad behaviors ii. Not just saying ‘don’t do this, don’t do that’-just tell the person what to do c. DRI: Differential Reinforcement of Incompatible behavior i. Abused mule example ii. Shape the approached behavior-this is essentially the extinction iii. Teddy and the motorhome example (Actually moves from DRODRA) 1. Break the behavior down into smaller steps 2. Reinforcing in the absence of the problem behavior 3. Raise criteria and fade reinforcement-move at a faster pace-isn’t this shaping? Just not starting from 0! d. FCT: Functional Communication Training i. Kids who don’t have great communication skills who just want to get their needs met so the only way they know how to do that is to tantrum ii. Requesting what you want appropriately e. When to use DRA? i. Increasing the frequency of desirable behaviors or decreasing undesirable ones ii. The desirable behavior already occurs at least occasionally or you can prompt it iii. You have a reinforcer that you can use f. Considerations in the use of DRA i. Consider EO’s to make the reinforcer more potent ii. Consider the use of rules or instructions iii. Fade artificial reinforcers to natural reinforcers to help maintain the behavior iv. Use the Premack Principle 2. Differential Reinforcement of Other Behavior (DRO) a. Reinforcing the learner for the absence of the problem behavior b. When the problem behavior does not occur during the interval of time, the reinforcer is delivered and when the problem behavior does occur, the interval resets c. Use when you want to eliminate a problem behavior 3. Differential Reinforcement of Low Rates of Responding (DRL) a. Taking behaviors to an appropriate level of responding (reinforcing a lower rate of the problem behavior) b. Having a kid come down and not talk in class so much- don’t want to get rid of this completely c. Like the harm reduction treatment in substance use disorders i. Abstinence is not the only way to go How to choose reinforcers: Ask o Usually the mom Observe Test o Try different reinforcers and see which one works best Don’t forget about negative reinforcement! Desirable behavior produces escape or avoidance of aversive stimuli Very powerful because we’ve seen that kids do it all the time Used in DRO and DRA when termination of an aversive stimulus is the reinforcer for an alternative behavior (DRA) or the reinforcer for the absence of the problem behavior (DRO) Todd: ADHD Co-exist: learning disabilities, conduct disorder From the ABA perspective, we don’t care how the brain is wired! The only thing that matters is the problem behavior, what the maintaining antecedents and consequences are, and how we can change those maintaining behaviors -functionally intervene at the overt behavior 1. Screening 2. Multimethod Assesment -What is the nature of the problem like? -In what setting does the behavior occur? -What factors maintain the problem? -Frequency, duration, magnitude -Off task behavior ADHD-A disorder of when and where-Not HOW -Why it is important to bring these kinds of behaviors under stimulus control -A performance problem, NOT a knowledge problem Intervention plans: Proactive: Preventing the occurrence of problem behaviors Class wide peer tutoring Reactive: Responses to appropriate behaviors Response cost 4. Intervention planning and implementation Chapter 16: Antecedent Control Procedures Control Procedures: Involves altering the environment in advance of the target behavior Addresses antecedents rather than consequences of operant behavior o Where the environment pulls for on task behaviors o Pick a topic that Todd likes (language v. math) Procedures to increase the probability of the desirable target behavior: Present S^D or cues for desirable behavior (could be similar to a prompt) o The desirable behavior is under the control of the S^D o When the S^D is present, the behavior is more likely to occur o Cues serve as prompts or reminders o Ex. Seating arrangements to facilitate a conversation (more in a circle) o Ex. Reminder on the bathroom mirror to floss Present the EO (for the consequence) of the desirable behavior o An EO makes the reinforcer for the desirable behavior more potent o Ex. No snacks before meal time-deprivation o Ex. Arrange a contract for getting work done o Scare tactics could easily backfire o A NEED o Ex. Todd-Teacher coming around to his desk more often Decrease response effort for desirable behavior-the easier the behavior is to do, the more likely it will be that the behavior continues o Ex. Recycling box next to desk o Ex. Healthy foods in easy reach Procedures to decrease the probability of competing (undesirable) behaviors (Opposite of procedures to increase the probability) Remove S^D or cues for competing behaviors Eliminate EO’s (present AO’s) for competing behaviors Increase response effort for competing behavior o Making the undesirable behavior easier to do Chapter 17: Negative Punishment: Time Out and Response Cost Negative punishment: Unlike extinction, the reinforcer has already been earned and now it has been taken away Response cost: The person loses a quantity of a specific reinforcer contingent on the occurrence of the problem behavior Immediately after the problem behavior, the reinforcer is removed Change agent must have control over the reinforcer being removed Issues: Positive v. negative punishment o Differential reinforcement is always the best! But sometimes it isn’t always enough-why we turn to punishment o How easily can you implement the punishment o Big one-can these techniques be misused or even lead to abuse? Very fine between corporal punishment and physical abuse Even verbal punishment is bad! o Likelihood of harm o Acceptability Philosophical opposition to punishment o Tells you what not to do, but you always want to balance it out by telling people what to do Time Out Follows the problem behavior Child is removed from the reinforcing environment-what is most likely Therefore, problem behavior decreases Types o Exclusionary-leaving the environment o Non-exclusionary-not completely leaving the environment Still many sources of reinforcement The “time in” environment MUST be more reinforcing than the time out environment o Some kids may prefer the time out environment-which is not effective at all o Why parent-child interaction is so crucial, if playing with mom is not reinforcing, time out will be more reinforcing Using Time Out 1. ALWAYS start with a functional assessment 2. Make sure “time in” is reinforcing-build up the quality of the parent/child interaction 3. Reinforce desirable behaviors-if the bad behavior is continuing, that behavior is being wrongly reinforced 4. Immediacy-take child to time out as soon as problem behavior occurs 5. No attention when child is in time out 6. Time out must be practical, brief, and safe 7. No other reinforcers during time out 8. No escape during time out 9. Make sure child is calm when leaving time out-Whatever is not the calm behavior is inevitably the problem behavior, and we don’t want to accidentally reinforce the undesirable behavior Getting Buy-In-Doing something correctly (PCIT video) *Please, small and specific instructions Chapter 18: Positive Punishment A last resort-after non-aversive approaches have been implemented and have not been effective Problems with Punishment: How do you maintain a loving relationship while showing discipline? Limit when discipline is necessary! Emotional reactions/aggressive behavior-Backlash Escape and avoidance behaviors-aversive! Try to get out of it Modeling the use of punishment Negative reinforcement for the use of punishment-5 seconds of quiet o Don’t overuse time-outs! Establishing the user as a conditioned punisher-quality time with you becomes much less **Bottom line-it doesn’t work! Doesn’t lead to long term behaviors, only suppression of temporary behaviors -Never told them what TO DO Application of Aversive Activities: positive practice overcorrection, restitutional (restoring the environment better than it originally was) overcorrection, contingent exercise, guided compliance, and physical restraint Application of Aversive Stimulation: An aversive stimulus is delivered contingent on the problem behavior