Behavior Therapy Final Exam
Behavior Therapy Final Exam PSYC 3970
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by aiy0001 on Sunday August 21, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 3970 at Auburn University taught by Frank Weathers in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 2 views. For similar materials see Special Topics: Behavior Therapy in Psychology (PSYC) at Auburn University.
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Date Created: 08/21/16
Behavior Therapy Final Chapter 22: Token Economy Token Economy Straight up positive reinforcement-“catching them being good” Systematic use of conditioned reinforcers-the tokens o Being paired with an unconditioned reinforcer o Making it have some value Positive reinforcementextinctionpunishmentpositive punishment (the last possible choice and NEVER by itself!) Building in response cost-cashing in points for something that you want o Can also lose tokens! Negative punishment Hard because if you lose it all (have nothing to lose) then what’s the point of maintaining good behavior Examples of Token Economy Poker chips given to students for correct answers Points entered into a computer for prison inmates completing their daily chores Essential Features of Token Economy 1. Functional assessment-someone has to complain about the behavior 2. **Identify the desirable behavior 3. Figuring out what people will work for-preference assessments a. Fairly small because you can’t give these outlandish rewards all the time b. Good to have a variety (they may get burnt out) and also giving them a choice 4. Making sure the patient DOESN’T have access to these reinforcers outside the token economy 5. Decide on schedule of reinforcement a. At the beginning, reinforce A TON! Once you get the idea of being reinforced, you raise the bar making it more difficult to get reinforced b. Ultimately letting natural reinforcers take over and letting the behavior become habitual 6. More reinforcement is always better a. The problem is if the person is not getting enough reinforcement 7. Immediacy and contingency are crucial! a. Have to have the kid understand that there is something bigger and better for them down the road Advantages: Tokens can be delivered immediately after target behavior, easy to accumulate and dispense, can be quantified, don’t lose their value as reinforcers, can teach the recipient planning skills and can accommodate a response cost procedure, and the system is highly structured Disadvantages: Time, effort, and cost *Unconditioned punisher ABC Very slight difference between the S^D and prompt *Contingency and discrimination Shaping v. chaining-how many steps get dropped out Music added-promoting for generalization -No alarm signaling that time is up, just her voice -Purposely picking tasks that are overlearned? S^D: “Time to do work”, the alarm (conditioned stimulusconditioned emotional response; being associated with an aversive) Prompts: gestural-pointing to hands on lap, putting the token board close to him *Reinforcement for one trial becomes the rule for the next trial Motivating Operations: Using his favorite toys to your advantage-take them away in order to do work Group Token Economies -The one girl seemed like she was outcasted -Time out rather than a token economy exercise -Not a true group token economy Chapter 24: Fear and Anxiety Procedures Evolutionary Preparedness: Brains are hardwired to fear some things as the unconditioned stimulus when it really should be the fear or anxiety Respondent conditioning: How do we become programmed to be afraid of things that are not inherently dangerous? Even generalized to just pictures? Operant conditioning: Escape and avoidance-negatively reinforced Relaxation techniques: PMR, diaphragmatic breathing exercises, attention focusing exercises, and behavioral relaxation training All address muscle tension, proper breathing, and attention focus Apply the Bouton Figure to the Snake Phobia Example How do we learn this behavior? How does she become to be fearful? -Thinks she might have heart failure from being so overwhelmed by this snake What is the treatment used? -Brief exposure therapy -Never force! If you’re scared of something, you’ve got to face your fears! 1. Throw them into it-of course have to be aware of real dangers 2. Baby steps: Proceeding at their own pace but in a forward motion -Just because their fear may not be inherently dangerous doesn’t mean that they don’t fear it S: In what situation would it be appropriate to escape? R: Escape or avoidance S*: Relief from the stressful situation Bridget: Family is contaminated Rocco: “What if” questions Liz: Cleanliness Michelle: Kids at school are contaminated Chapter 25: Cognitive Behavior Modification Defining Cognitive Behavior Involves self-talk or imaginal behavior Occurs covertly-appreciate this part! Also known as “private events” Our thoughts and feelings are behaviors 1. Define the terms o I’m no good, I can’t do anything rightLabel: Low self esteem o I’m better than he is, I’m going to win this gameLabel: Self confidence Functions of Cognitive Behavior A thought can function as a conditioned stimulus o CSCR (fear) A thought can function as an EO (motivating operation is better) o Fear is a very potent motivating operation for escape or avoidance A thought can function as an S^D o What is the thing to do when you feel afraid? The thought provides a rule for the behavior A thought can function as a reinforcer or punisher o Self praise or criticism following the behavior 1. Self-monitoring -Graded exposure therapy (least anxiety provoking situation first) MO: Setting yourself a small goal (abolishing some of the fear) -How broad the generalization can go *Not supposed to be raped two times-this was her belief system and it protected her Albert Ellis: Our thoughts are strongly associated with our feelings and behaviors Coming up with a cognitive approach that is quite behavioral Attacking the belief system Cognitive Behavior in Clinical Problems Examples of cognitive behavioral excess o Depression-excess of negative self evaluations Examples of cognitive behavioral deficits o Poor decision making and problem solving Problem of Circular Reasoning Observed behavior is given a label (generalized trait label) o Have to account for individual differences! Label is then used as the explanation for the behavior o Trait causes the behavior Simply naming a behavior-Doesn’t explain anything! All comes back to the power of the situation-the causes are in the power of the environment o How the person in the environment is appraising the situation Cognitive Restructuring: Goal is to replace distressing thoughts with more desirable, rational thoughts 1. Identify the distressing thoughts 2. Identify the emotional response, mood, or behavior that follows 3. Help client to replace distressing thoughts with more rational thoughts Video: operant and respondent (oh now I can see this isn’t scary anymore) extinction
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