Cognitive Psychology-Test 1
Cognitive Psychology-Test 1 PSYC 3540
Popular in Cognitive Psychology
Popular in Psychology (PSYC)
This 19 page Class Notes was uploaded by aiy0001 on Sunday August 21, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 3540 at Auburn University taught by Dr. Callender in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 4 views. For similar materials see Cognitive Psychology in Psychology (PSYC) at Auburn University.
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Date Created: 08/21/16
Cognitive Psychology Chapter 1: History of Cognitive Psychology 1. Fundamentally and philosophically different from behavior and learning-came out of a reaction to behavior a. According to behaviorists, it was seen as “unscientific” to refer to actions that could not be observed by others 2. Came about when computers came into existence 3. Emerged out of researchers’ attempts to understand the structure and processes of human mental life William Wundt (1832-1920) Father of cognitive psychology o Published the first psychological journal First to study mental processes in a systematic way Came up with the method of ‘introspection’ o No interpretation! Just reporting experiences and not giving it a label or a name o Looking inward, thinking about your own thoughts o ‘Replicating’ their introspection Edward Titchener School of structuralism o What the structure of the human mind was Continued with introspection in a much more strict use Problem: the final authority in evaluating this introspection- brings in that subjective factor Ebbinghaus Father of memory research (and association formation) o Studied himself rather than other subjects Used novel items to memorize and retrieve them later (CVC trigrams-vowel-consonant-vowel EX. KUQ, MAF) Study, Test (recall items until he got 100%), Delay (minutes/days), Relearn list, Savings (number of trials or time it took to get all items right) SavingsOriginal-Relearning *100 Original EX. 10-5/10*100=50 -Criticism: You CAN form associations with some of these trigrams, some will be easier to memorize than others -Forgetting Curve: How information is lost over time when there is no attempt to retain it; the decline in memory retention William James Functionalism o Behaviors that are appropriate for the environment o We have different mental processes that occur in the mind i.e. attention, memory, reasoning Primary v. secondary memory (now short and long term memory) John Watson Behaviorist o Only focused on OBSERVABLE behavior o What’s the outside stimulus and what’s the observable response S-(mind)-R-behaviorists don’t pay attention to the mind The idea of Behaviorism o “John is hungry”John is likely to engage in an eating behavior in the presence of food Could be a number of reasons why John wouldn’t eat the food (i.e. depression, doesn’t like the food, allergies) o Problems 1. Inability to enumerate all conditions 2. Inability to eliminate mental entities 3. Inability to explain many human activities (language development) Events leading up to the Cognitive Revolution: 1832: Tolman-Learning can occur without reinforcers (experimented rats in mazes) 1927: Kohler-Insight could be used to solve problems (experimented with apes trying to reach a banana) 1954: Development of the computer-lead to the idea of cognitive psychology (a new model of the mind) 1956: Miller’s Magic Number-7 +- 2 The amount of information that people can remember without making mistakes (why telephone numbers are 7 digits) 1956: Newel and Simon’s General Problem Solver Able to replicate human decision making using computers 1957: Chomsky’s Critique of Language (against Skinner) Not all behavioral! Something more in the development of language Not just a stimulus response 1967: Neisser’s book called Cognitive Psychology Criticized the idea of computers and believed that the mind was way more complex than what computers were trying to replicate Importance on forgetting and putting more focus into the little things Assumptions of Cognitive Psychology 1. Mental processes exist a. Mental representations-hierarchy 2. Mental processes can be scientifically studied a. Objective v. quantifiable 3. Humans are active information processors 4. The brain underlies cognition Chapters 1 and 2: The Cognitive Science Approach 3 Ways to Study Mental Processes 1. Behavioral a. Primarily what is done in cognition b. Common measures i. Reaction Time 1. Time between the stimulus and the response 2. Measured in milliseconds (1000 milliseconds=1 second) 3. Example: Lexical Decision Task a. How long does it take to decide if the word is real or not? b. High v. low frequency 4. Studies: All about the frequency-how fast or slow before you get a response a. Prospective memory-remembering something that will occur in the future b. Sensory/perceptual tasks c. Knowledge access/organization d. Inhibition e. Attention/visual search 5. Problems a. Speed/accuracy i. Don’t emphasize these too much b. Expectancy effects (for the experimenter or the experimentee ii. Accuracy 1. How many correct responses does the participant get 2. The amount of text remembered 3. Go/No Go response a. Inhibition responses 4. Serial Position Curve a. You remember words better depending on where they are on a list: the words in the middle get lost whereas the words at the beginning and end you remember better b. Goes hand in hand with the recency (short term memory) and primacy effect (the words that are in long term memory but were rehearsed more) 5. Problems a. Ceiling (doesn’t have anywhere to go to get better-you’re already there! Too easy) and Floor Effects (The task is way too difficult) i. Control group must be in the middle c. The assumption: mental processes take time; the more difficult a mental task is, the more time it should take to complete it 2. Computer Models (Connectionism; Neural Net Model; Parallel Distribution) a. Multiple things going on in the brain that leads to a single output b. Input nodes (can be anything i.e. letters in a word)activates hidden layers (some connections are weighed heavier than others)hidden layer connections then lead to outputs i. Seeing the letterswhat the letters mean ii. The context of what you’re reading can help you make sense of the words 3. Brain Imaging (Studying the Brain) a. Structure and functions of the brain i. Neurons-building blocks of the nervous system 1. Cells in the nervous system that receive and transmit information 2. Neurons consist of a cell body, nucleus, dendrites (receive information), axon (coated in the myelin sheath which sends information through the axon terminal buttons) 3. 3 types of neurons a. Sensory neurons: receives information from the outside world and then sends it to the brain b. Motor neurons: Carries information from the spinal cord to the muscles c. Interneurons: Connects all neurons together 4. Nerves: Bundles of axons ii. Brain’s Structure 1. Frontal Lobe: Logic, thought, personality, short- term memory a. Motor and sensory cortex’s lies between the frontal and parietal lobes 2. Parietal Lobe: Spatial processing, object recognition, complex visual/touch perception 3. Occipital Lobe: Vision (visual pattern recognition) 4. Temporal Lobe: Hearing, long-term memory, face object identification iii. Major Divisions of the Brain 1. Hindbrain: Controls automatic processes that regulate basic life-support functions such as breathing, heart rate, swallowing, and sleep cycles; keeps us alive; controls balance and coordination of voluntary movements 2. Midbrain: The relay center for sensory information entering the brain such as hearing and vision; important for attention 3. Forebrain: Contains the cerebral cortex-which is divided into 2 hemispheres; regulates higher mental processes b. Recording Neural Activity i. Single Cell Recording 1. Shows what individual cells are doing 2. Action Potential-is the neuron firing or at rest? 3. Microelectrodes 4. Shows change in voltage over time over the course of the action potential ii. Feature Detectors 1. Simple cells-straight lines 2. Complex cells-cells moving up or down 3. End stopped cells-shows us where the edge of an object is c. Central Hemispheres i. Principles of Functioning 1. Hemisphere Specialization a. Each hemisphere of the brain has specialized functions and abilities b. Right handed people i. Left brain: language ii. Right brain: nonverbal, spatial, perceptual c. Left handed people i. Atypical lateralization: Don’t know where things are lateralized-left and right brain functions could be reversed 2. Contralaterality: The right brain controls the left side of the body and vice versa a. Most common 3. Ipsilateral: Brain side controls the same side of the body a. Smell ii. Split Brain Research and Lateralization 1. Split brain procedures-people who have seizures a. If you sever the corpus callosum, the electrical waves can’t get to the other side of the brain and therefore, no more seizures b. The non-conscious part of our brain is crucial! c. In children, removing a whole hemisphere is okay due to plasticity at their young age i. The two hemispheres can operate independently d. Lateralization: Certain functions are carried out on one hemisphere iii. Clinical Observations 1. Phineas Gage a. Rod went through his prefrontal cortex (thought, planning, emotion) b. His whole personality completely changed c. Oliver Sacks: wrote many books about neuropsychological issues d. Gave his brain to science after he died 2. Figuring out that damage to one area of the brain has a certain outcome d. Neuroimaging i. Brain Structure 1. CAT Scan: Structure 2. MRI: structure of the brain using magnets a. Alzheimer’s patients: More space in the brain b. Taking slices of the brain and putting them back together using 3D images ii. Brain Function 1. EEG: attaching electrodes to your head while performing activities a. Not good spatial resolution b. Helpful in identifying when broad areas of the brain are involved in specific events 2. PET scan: looking at the glucose consumption a. When you see or hear a word, a certain region is lit up b. Don’t know what structure is being highlighted c. Identifying which area of the brain is active I. Both Structure and Function a. fMRI: Shows where activity is occurring while also showing the structure of the brain b. Uses magnets to locate structure and bloodflow c. Different colors for different functions of the brain II. All of these methods are correlational: Meaning it reveals the pattern of brain activity but it does not reveal causation: doesn’t show the activation in specific brain areas that results in the tasks being carried out Evaluating Correlational Neural Methods on Different Dimensions I. Spatial Resolution a. How a brain area is localized in order to produce a certain signal II. Temporal Resolution a. How well can it track changes over time III. Invasiveness a. The degree to which the require an amount of foreign substances in the brain Invasive Techniques Direct Stimulation Split Brain Research Prefrontal Lobotomy Animal Studies General Information Processing Model: Environmental input (‘flirp’)Encode stimulus (‘flirp’)Search (??-takes longer to search as opposed to a real world)Decision (Not a word)Response (“NO”) Information Processing Approach (Atkinson & Shiffrin): Memory Environmental inputsensory registersworking memory/short term (delivers an outputLong term storage (also goes back to short term) Problems: Assumes serial processing but we NEED parallel processing -This model can’t handle outside influences Chapter 3: Attention Attention: The taking possession by the mind, in a clear and vivid form, of one out of what seem several simultaneously presented objects or trains of thought-William James’ definition Also can be reiterated as the concentration of mental activity that allows you to take in a limited portion of information Nuances 1. Attention as a mental process 2. Attention as a limited resource *For both of these, selecting a stimulus to attend to is important for attention Different Kinds of Attention 1. Automatic a. Getting initial (basic) sensory information into our cognitive system i. Also called Input Attention-very fast and low level information ii. Nothing forced, no effort iii. Why is this important? Being aware of our surroundings; beginning of a filtering process of what we should be focusing on iv. Orienting Reflex (Reflexive Attention): Redirection of attention towards an unexpected stimulus 1. Usually triggered by a novel stimulus (a new person in class) or a significant stimulus (a glass shattering/loud noise) a. Habituation: Reduction of attention back to baseline (getting used to it) 2. Automatic like/Voluntary a. Spotlight Attention: Focusing on one thing wholeheartedly; whatever is in the spotlight is what is your main focus i. The “spotlight” can be big or small (as to focus on one individual) ii. Visual Search (Treisman & Gelade): Do we have to rely on visual processing to focusing our attention on something? Shifting our minds along with shifting our eyes? 1. Pop-out effect: Don’t have to move our eyes around a lot to see something that stands out 2. Disjunctive Search: The process of looking for something that stands out; looking for something with only 1 property (i.e. just the color is different) a. Relatively flat reaction time-500 milliseconds b. Parallel processing c. True pop out effect (Why this is automatic like) 3. Conjunctive Search: Looking for something with 2 properties (i.e. looking for the color and shape) a. Adding more information to an array makes things more difficult b. Now the baseline is 2400 milliseconds i. Increases with the complexity of the pattern display c. Serial Processing i. More controlled attention 3. Controlled a. What we think of as attention: A deliberate, voluntary allocation of mental effort or concentration; serial processing i. Reading a textbook ii. Driving in traffic iii. Even watching TV b. Selective Attention: The ability to attend to one piece of information and ignore everything else i. Cherry and Broadbent Experiments-Early Selection 1. Dichotic Listening Task a. 2 different messages being sent to each ear 2. Shadowing Task a. Hearing the message that came in one ear and have the person repeat what they heard 3. Noticed: a. Noticed voice switching from male to female b. Musical Instruments v. person talking c. Silence d. Hearing your own name-Cocktail Party Effect 4. Not Noticeable: a. Language switched from English to German b. If unattended message was coherent or if it was random words c. The same word being said 35 times in unattended ear 5. Unattended Ear: a. Both messages are presented slowly b. The task isn’t challenging c. The meaning of the message is relevant to the other ii. Bottleneck Effect 1. Numerous sensory information->limited attended information 2. Filtering based on low level perceptual information 3. Not the best model iii. Treisman 1. Preformed same experiments as Broadbent a. Shadowing tasks-shadowing the wrong message 2. Middle Selection Model-Filtering at the meaning level, not at the perceptual level iv. Deutsch & Deutsch 1. Everything gets processed (acoustic and semantic analysis) before you filter out-this is known as the Late Selection Model v. Is information blocked or are you just not processing something all the way? c. Divided Attention-Lots of control! i. Trying to fully process 2 different things all at one time 1. Accuracy for one or both stimuli being processed will most likely go down ii. Automatic 1. No mental resources required 2. No intentions-you just do it! No planning 3. Not available for conscious inspection-In driving, you don’t remember what you did! So well practiced 4. Errors a. Slips and Mindlessness i. An automatic process gets interrupted (skip a step) ii. Deviates from a usual routine b. Ex. Pilot checklist 1982 i. Pilot was flying in the winter and the automatic response was that the defroster was on, but it wasn’t! iii. Effortful 1. Takes longer 2. Not well practiced 3. Ex. Driving in an unfamiliar place-texting along with driving iv. Stroop Task 1. Competing information (word+color) 2. Accessing written words are automatic and we inhibit reading the actual color of the word 4. Mental Resource Attention Disorders: Hemispatial Neglect: One side of the visual scene is ignored If you draw attention toward the other side of the visual field, then it can be attended to When patients are asked to draw a picture, they only draw a half of the picture o Failing to select information on the side of space opposite of the lesion and therefore, they don’t incorporate certain information in their pictures Errors in Attention Tricking Attention Attention has the ability to mislead us Change Blindness o Paying attention on one thing while failing to notice your other surroundings o Failing to perceive unanticipated changes o Failure to notice changes in visual stimuli Usually changes during a blink Due to disruption in the scene, not eye movements o Flicker Test-Something that comes into the picture that you don’t notice (i.e. the penguin or gorilla) o Famous Study A man asking for directions Inattentional Blindness: Failure to see objects because you’re not attending to them o Gorilla walking through a group of people playing basketball and not noticing it o David Strayer He researched that driving while on the phone is the same as someone driving with a .08 BAC level Attentional Blink o Shifting focus and can’t attend to a new target event o Absence of recognition Car brakes in front of you-might get too close Walking on campus and avoiding bicyclists o Rapid Serial Visual Presentation Present letters in a very fast sequence Typical attentional blink is around 500 milliseconds Repetition Blindness o Inability to perceive repeated stimuli during R.S.V.P o Such a slight difference that we don’t notice the difference both time o Being presented 2 of the same letters but only remembering to have seen 1 of them Chapter 4: Perception and Pattern Recognition Functional Specialization-How is the brain wired? *Specifically visual Zeki The visual cortex has different components to it o V1 &V2: Color and form; focuses on the basic shape of the object o V3: Focuses on JUST the overall shape of the object o V4: Color and line orientation-what direction the line is facing? o V5: JUST processes motion-what direction is the object moving in? Akinetopsia: Losing the ability to perceive motion Lesion to the V5 Ex. Someone with this can’t see the water gradually filing up but then notices when the water has reached the top of the cup Study this by putting a magnet over the brain and disrupting it experimentally Pathways of the Brain Dorsal Pathway: Where the object is; goes along the posterior parietal cortex Ventral Pathway: What the object is; goes along the inferior temporal cortex Visual System is designed to detect: Specific features (lines, orientations) Edges Movement Changes in the environment-helps us detect important things in the environment Perception: Experience of sensory input; top down processing (using previous experiences to interpret things; conceptually driven) Using what you already know Sensation: (What cognition is based off of); Bottom up processing (data driven) Raw sensory experiences Pattern Recognition: Process of identifying/recognizing a stimulus Locating information from long term memory Theories of Pattern Recognition o Template Matching Theory Template: An existing form for something where you fill in the missing pieces Comparing the stimuli out in the world with what you already have in your mind Each specific example must exactly match the example in your mind-No other font or slight change! Can’t handle variation and ambiguity (is it a duck or rabbit? Thanks to top-down processing) Ex. Logos (since there aren’t many to think of, it’s not really the best theory!) o Feature Integration Theory: Treisman (1986) We break everything down into component features Stimuli is composed of a small number of distinctive features Treisman used letters a lot in her studies in order to identify each feature (lines) and put them back together o Ex. Search for the Z-kind of like the pop- out effect Can’t shut out the diagonal features, you have to search for them one by one Stage 1: Preattentive Stage Automatically breaking objects into its component features Shape and then color and process these features independently Stage 2: Focused Attention Putting these features back together Combining the shape and color and forming something in your mind Ex. Green square Illusory Conjunction: Creating an illusion of a shape and a color, but they were never together! o Ex. Remembering what numbers were on the screen and thinking that there was a yellow square Works well for 2D objects (letters) With 3D objects it gets messy o Recognition by Components: Biederman (1987) Recognizing 3D objects across variations in viewpoints or exemplars Identifying objects 2 Types of Representations o Viewer Centered Representations What the object looks like relative to the observer o Object Centered Representations What the object looks like relative to the object itself Geons: 3D basic shapes where you combine them to form every object that’s out there Cylinders, rectangles, squares As long as you can recognize the different geons, you can recognize the objects Looking at the inner sections of the geons* o Cup on the left is easier to recognize o Hard to decipher where the geons might end or begin, that’s why it’s easier to “fill in the lines” Limitations Relying on bottom up processing (data driven) o No room for interpretationambiguity Do we process things more as a whole rather than by the individual parts? o Neurological Evidence Agnosia Recognizing the parts but not being able to see it as a whole Apperceptive Agnosia: Inability to integrate features of an object into an overall pattern o Difficulty recognizing and even copying an object o Hard time differentiating between a poker chip and a scrabble tile o Due to damage of the right hemisphere in the parietal lobe o Have trouble distinguishing between shapes Associative Agnosia: Can copy and distinguish between shapes, but couldn’t tell you and recognize what the object is o Just by LOOKING at it, they can’t recognize it BUT through other senses like smell they can come to the conclusion of what an object is Prosopagnosia Not being able to recognize or identify faces Being able to see their features but not putting their face together as a whole How this relates to pattern recognition Detecting features of a stimulus is a different process than encoding stimuli Detecting features is critical in constructing an overall pattern Separate process for attaching a meaning to a pattern o Prototype Theory The average of a class of related object or patterns DOESN’T have to be an exact match like template matching Prototype of a dog: Golden retriever (differs for each person) Integrates all the most typical features of a certain class Caricatures Looking at the accentuations Different artists may pick and choose different features to highlight based on what their image of a celebrity prototype is Interactive Activation Model How we recognize letters and words o Activating 3 different levels Feature Curved or diagonal Most activation is what you see Bottom up processing Letter Word Depending on which word gets activated, that’s what you end up seeing Word Superiority Effect-Can go beyond words! Can apply to objects and patterns too o Easier to recognize a letter when it’s presented in a word rather than standing alone of in a non-word because knowledge of the word send down activation to help you process the word EX. B, TOBO, BOAT o Response times are faster in detecting a letter that’s in a real word Top Down Processing and Speech Perception o Recognizing a word better when it matches a certain context Ex. The *eel was on the shoe (heel) The *eel was on the axle (wheel) o Auditory verbal Agnosia Pure word deafness Injury related (so have already required language) Inability to hear words as language- basically everything sounds like gibberish Can interpret sounds (a bell or a car horn) but can’t understand spoken language Can communicate through writing Face Perception and Recognition o We are born with the ability to recognize faces Imitation by 3 weeks o Evidence that we are processing faces holistically Implications for identifying suspects Identikit: Templates for individual’s features Putting features together- doesn’t work! Not how we identify faces o Problems in recognizing faces-Cross Race Effect VERY poor in identifying faces from other races Expectations influence perceptions Beyond experiences Younger kids are better at recognizing faces from different races Hard because many more people are fitting into more than one race Schizophrenia Poor recognition for memory of faces o After 30 min. performance is low Smaller fusiform gyrus Have a hard time processing to emotion on faces o May be due to their inappropriate emotions as well Autism Don’t attend to things as many faces in childhood o No eye contact Breaking down features and not looking at faces as a whole Tend to look at mouths more rather than the eyes o Eyes generally tell us a lot about emotion and because of this, people with Autism have difficulties in processing emotions Gestalt Laws of Perception Proximity: Being close together Similarity: Looking similar is perceived to be in the same group Closure: Perceiving a figure as closed when it’s actually open Common Fate: When objects are moving in the same direction, they are perceived to belong to the same group Symmetry: Natural to think groups of symmetry belong together Good Continuation: Tendency to connect elements that are not already connected
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