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Cognitive Psychology-Test 2

by: aiy0001

Cognitive Psychology-Test 2 PSYC 3540

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The second test goes covers: Chapter 5: Sensory & Short Term Memory Chapter 6: Working Memory + Long Term Memory + Everyday Memory
Cognitive Psychology
Dr. Callender
Class Notes
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Popular in Cognitive Psychology

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This 25 page Class Notes was uploaded by aiy0001 on Sunday August 21, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 3540 at Auburn University taught by Dr. Callender in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 4 views. For similar materials see Cognitive Psychology in Psychology (PSYC) at Auburn University.


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Date Created: 08/21/16
Cognitive Chapter 5: Sensory and Short Term Memory Modal: Most commonly used model of memory Environmental inputSensory registers/memory (really short-where attention comes in)Working/short term memory (have to actively process this or else you can lose it)Long-term memory  Based on the information processing approach  Good way to conceptualize memory Sensory Memory  Iconic memory (visual sensory memory) o Icon: Visual representation of an object o Visual persistence: persistence of a visual stimulus beyond its physical (actual) duration  Form of memory: long enough so you have the decision to pay attention to it or not o Iconic memory: Visual buffer that stores icons  Sperling’s Experiment o How much information can we take in at once? o Presented 3 X 4 arrays of letters for 50 milliseconds while people report what they saw  XTM  SRF  QOB  APN o Whole report condition  Looking at span of apprehension: how much you take in at one time  People would report 4/5 out of the 12 items  Failing to recall the bottom row  Recalling everything that they saw o Partial report condition  Same as whole reporting except they heard a tone and they had to recall only a specific row  People can recall 75-82% of that row Short-Term Memory  Holding onto information for a short period of time (30 seconds)  Serial Position Curve o Information in the middle has left short term memory or hasn’t gotten to long term memory o Presentation rate affects primacy  1 word every 9 seconds v. 1 word every 3 seconds  Having more time to process that word o Word Frequency affects primacy, not recency  High frequency words (like tree, dog, sky) are recalled better than low frequency words o Delay affects recency, not primacy  Capacity-How much information can we hold? o Miller’s Magical Number: 7+-2  People can remember between 5-9 numbers at a time  Chunking: Grouping information in a way that's meaningful to make remembering easier o Prose material: remember better than just isolated information o Cowan discovered that remembering 5 numbers is still considered chunking  Without chunking, people can remember 4 numbers  Forgetting o Decay: As time passes, information leaves  Brown-Peterson Task  Remember 3 letters, count backwards by 3’s  Varied interval lengths  People remember about 90% from 0-3 seconds and then quickly drops off  Problem: interference also comes into play when you’re thinking about subtracting by 3 o Interference: Other information gets in the way of what you’re trying to remember  Waugh and Norman Serial Probe Task  Presented 16 digits one at a time either very slowly (16 seconds to present everything-1 second for each item) or fast (4 seconds to present everything)  Probe: last digit  Go back to the previous digit of the last number (the last digit being one and then going to the last one) and then going to the number after the one  Bottom Line: Retroactive interference: new information gets in the way of recollection of old information  Manipulated presentation rate and intervening items  Challengers of Waugh and Norman: Keppel and Underwood  Proactive Interference: Older information gets in the way of learning new information o Release from proactive interference: Wickens  Performed 4 Brown-Peterson type trials  Used words that belonged to the same category in the first 3 trials (getting harder and harder to remember)  Final list is from a new category (performance is at 100% again)  Fruits v. jobs  Moral of the story: take a break when studying! Switch to something else because proactive interference will inevitably build up  Did the same Brown-Peterson Task o Looked at the trials separately instead o As you build up more and more information, memory goes down  Look at each trial individually  Recall v. Recognition o Recall: What items were on the list? o Recognition: Did you see this item on this list previously? o Short Term Memory Scanning Task: Sternberg  Tested recall and recognition and then the participant responded either yes or no  Increased gradually from 1-6 items  Measuring how long the reaction time was between the presentation of the probe and the yes or no response  Process Model of the Sternberg Task  Encode probescanning process to look for itemyes or no decision  So how do we search memory? 1. Serial Self Terminating Search: One item at a time, once you find the item, you stop  Reaction time increases for NO responses 2. Parallel Search: Search for items all at one time  Flat reaction time for both YES and NO 3. Serial Exhaustive: Scan one item at a time with entire set scanned  Reaction time is long for both YES and NO  What we commonly do! Not very efficient!  Results of Sternberg Task o People generally scan with serial exhaustive o Scan rate is about 38 msec per item Chapter 6: Working Memory ~How much information can we manipulate, not like short-term memory in how much information we can hold Attention: Lots of mental resources we can allocate to working memory  Why distraction can hurt working memory Often correlated with IQ Storage and Processing=Working Memory White Bear Task: People who are higher in working memory have the ability to suppress unwanted thoughts Differences in the ability to control attention to maintain information in an active, quickly retrievable state  Not directly about memory  Using attention to maintain and suppress information  Very different from short-term memory! Measuring Working Memory  How much information can you hold (storage + processing)  Reading Scan Task: Say yes or no whether a sentence makes sense; now recall the last word from each sentence given (also want the order to be correct) o General assessment of memory o Have to be a good reader-that’s the problem o Very domain specific  Operation span task o More broad domain (don’t have to have a specific set of knowledge) o Easy mathematics; word presented afterwards o Again, have to be in the same order and answered correctly  Overall, span correlates with higher cognitive functions  Verbal Fluency Task o Generate exemplars from a category for 10 min.  Name all the animals you can think of  Looks at how many you can come up with and how many times you repeat o People with higher working memory come up with more unique animals (higher activation) and have fewer repetitions (ability to suppress)  Stroop Task o Name the color the word is written in  3 levels of difficulty  How congruent the word and the color were (how often they matched up) o 0% (never matched up), 50%, 75% (really easy to slip up, requires a lot of suppression since it is so close to 100%)  Predicted more errors in the 75% condition  Low working memory had more errors in this condition  Thought Suppression Task o White Bear Task  Negative correlation between working memory and number of intrusions (-.51) Current Model of Working Memory-Baddeley -Most widely accepted view -Store + Process information 1. Central executive: allocating attentional resources a. Visuospatial Sketchpad: Maintains visual and spatial information i. Walking somewhere on campus ii. Creating any mental image iii. Visual information encoded from verbal stimuli 1. See the word treecreate a mental image of the tree iv. Visual cache: stores information about form and color v. Inner scribe: Spatial orientation (in relation to you), movement, rehearsal, transfers information from visual cache to central executive vi. Phonological loop and VSSP are independent 1. Shouldn’t be able to do 2 of these at the same time, we CAN, but there are some limitations! b. Episodic buffer: episodic long-term memory i. Articulatory suppression task 1. This should eliminate memory for the words you’re trying to remember, your phonological loop should be completely filled up 2. People still can remember a lot of words (only decreased from 7-5 words) ii. Integration 1. Verbal and visual aren’t two separate areas, we can integrate them in the episodic buffer iii. Still limited 1. Being mindful of the limitations of working memory 2. c. Phonological loop: written (turn printed text into an auditory code), auditory, pictures-still giving it a name (all language) i. Overflows into the Episodic Buffer ii. Maintains speech based information iii. Need to actively rehearse or else it will decay very quickly (after 1-2 seconds) iv. Mix up things that sound similar v. Articulatory control 1. Out loud or in your head 2. Sub vocal repetitions (rehearsing) 3. Create a phonological code of visually presented items a. Words, nameable pictures 4. Basis for how much information we can hold in the phonological loop vi. Can only hold on to so much information vii. Evidence 1. Phonological Similarity Effect a. Similar sounding stimuli are more difficult to recall-happens with visual stimuli as well i. G, c, b, v, p, t-similar ii. F, l, k, s, y, t-different 2. Word Length Effect a. Short words are better remembered than longer words b. Remember information that you can say in 1.5-2 seconds i. Number of syllables c. How quickly can someone reads d. People who speak faster have a bigger phonological loop 3. Irrelevant Speech Effect a. Irrelevant information can fill up your PL i. Harder to process a necessary verbal task and thus, working memory is impaired b. Task i. Presented consonants to visually remember ii. Poorer recall in the irrelevant speech group iii. Why it’s better to study while listening to music with no words c. Not interrupting the VSSP 4. Articulatory Suppression a. Dishwasher, homelessness, reasoning, engineering b. (the the the) Automobile, revolution i. Suppressing the sub vocal rehearsal-reducing the amount of verbal (anything having to do with words) information that can be remembered (but not all!) c. Suppresses normal articulation reduces memory for words i. Why the episodic buffer was created d. Eliminated the word length effect e. Eliminated the phonological similarity effect for visually presented words Chapter 6: Long Term Memory Long Term Memory Structure 1. Explicit Memory (Declarative-if you declare something, you’re saying it): Something you can talk about a. Semantic Memory i. General world knowledge 1. May not know where you specifically learned this information a. What pigs are, what snow is, etc. b. Episodic Memory i. Have a memory for a specific event 1. Travel back in time to that event ii. Can be anything! Big events (graduation), simple, (what you had for dinner), recent or not 1. As long as you have a specific episode tied to that memory iii. NOT just videos playing in your head-you’re piecing together every aspect of the memory 1. Can lead to errors in memory! a. Ex. eye witness testimonies 2. Implicit Memory (Non-Declarative): Things that you can’t say but rather DO a. Procedural Memory i. Memory for actions or any procedures 1. Riding a bike-can’t explain it, but you just know how to do it b. Priming i. Unconscious influence of any experience on behavior 1. Advertisingsense of familiarity of an item a. Subliminal messages-not recognizing that you have seen a message ii. Very short lived (within a few seconds) iii. In a lab, looking at words 1. Pleasant or unpleasant? 2. Complete the word with the first thing that comes to mind? 3. Lots of similarities between these two task depending on what word they have seen first Separating Memory Systems  Serial Position Curve (U Shape) o Primacy Effect (LTM) o Recency Effect (STM)  Clinical o Amnesia-Some kind of injury to the brain (internal or external)-Both of these are fairly common  Shows us the distinction between different types of memories and how explicit and implicit memories are different  Retrograde: Losing memories before the accident (can sometimes get these memories back)  Anterograde: Cannot form new memories (after an accident occurred) but can remember the past o Case Studies  K.C.  Bad motorcycle accident  Injured the frontal lobe, medial temporal lobe (very important for memory)  As a result: Lost all episodic memory but semantic memory was intact o Used semantic memory to answer questions about personal events (made inferences based on what he already knew)  Retrograde amnesia and some anterograde  Could draw a map of the town he grew up in  Three word sentence-Associated picture (not very similar) o Months later, they found that priming is still in place  H.M.-Died only a few years ago!  Severe seizures  Removed large portions of the temporal lobe and hippocampus  Severe anterograde amnesia (won’t remember having met you)-can form implicit memories; can’t form episodic memories o Found that implicit and explicit memories are distinct memory systems  Two main tasks studied (learning procedures)- no awareness that he had done a certain task before but yet over time, he got better and better o Tower of Hanoi  Putting plastic cylinders through a pole o Mirror Drawing Task  Drawing a mirror image of a picture  Clive Wearing  Had a virus that attacked his brain (destroyed his temporal lobe but also much more)  “The man with the 30 second memory” o No awareness of who you were o Most long term memory was gone as well as anterograde amnesia (cannot form new episodic memories)  Only knew his wife; no awareness of who his children were  Semantic memory is somewhat intact-knows what a napkin or Danish is  Procedural memory is still intact  Learned habituation o Korsakoff’s Syndrome  Both retrograde and anterograde amnesia and make up stories to fill in the gaps (broad)  Includes cognitive deficits  Due to alcoholism (drinking calories instead of eating them) and so they have deficiencies in in quite a few areas  Damage to hippocampus, amygdala, and frontal cortex  Impaired performance on serial recall task (the primacy and recency effect) Encoding Long Term Memory  LTM is relatively permanent-sometimes you just don’t know what’s gone or not o Permastore: What’s still in your memory after a year will be there forever  Memory Trace: If you represented something over and over again, memory trace will get strengthened and the more likely you’ll be able to retrieve something  Memories are reconstructed-you’re not retrieving the memory as one whole unit-results in errors  Evidence for Rehearsal o Rote rehearsal: repeating something enough to get it into LTM o Ebbinghaus: used repetition o Serial Position Curve o Maintenance o Challenges to Maintenance  Incidental Learning  Didn’t elaborate on or rehearse it, but you just remember it! Didn’t intentionally rehearse  Von Restorff Effect  Apple  Railway  Bottle-Distinctive (Isolation effect) o Not rehearsing it but you remember it better because of its distinctiveness  Magazine  Elaborative Encoding o Distinctiveness effect? o Levels of Processing Study  Memory is determined not by how long information stays in the system but how the person processes it  “Monkey” Level 1: Structural Processing (Is this word in capital letters?) Shallow (Don’t even have to read the word)  Level 2: Phonemic Processing (Does the word rhyme with funky?)  Level 3: Semantic Processing (Is the word an animal?) Deep (Have to think about what the word means)  Good to study at a “deep” level! Because reaction time is not that much longer than level 1  Yes v. No responses  Why do yes answers have a faster reaction time?  Elaborate more in the yes conditions  Shallow: Occipital lobe (vision is more activated)  Deep: Frontal lobe is more activated o Elaborative Encoding Strategies  Organization  Any time you can organize information-Making connections to learned information and prior knowledge which helps you remember something better in the future  Restructuring information as it is being stored in memory  “Organization is a necessary condition for memory”  Bower Study o Recall a list of 112 words in 4 trials o Half of the participants were shown a diagram of the breakdown of the rd minerals and by the 3 trial, they got 100%  Why organizational structure is beneficial! o Other half was given the list in a random order and they only remembered 62% of rd the list after the 3 trial  Organizational strategies-Provides retrieval cues o Hierarchy o First letter (ROY G BIV) o Create narratives that link the elements together  Natural chunking strategy-hard when it comes to exam time o Subjective organization-Coming up with your own way to organize something  Generation Effect  Any time you generate information on your own you’re going to remember it better than if you were given the information (like reading)  Rosner Study o GenerateRead o Get the second word in the pair and say yes or no whether they saw that word in the pair and also rated the participants on confidence o Found that the ones that they generated lead to more confidence than the ones they just read o Activating lots of areas of the brain when you generate  Self-Referential Processing  Any time you can relate something back to yourself, memory improves (46% v. 34%)  Shallow v. Deep Processing o Memory performance increases with deep processing-More efficient than just repeating the information to yourself over and over o Distinctiveness and elaboration leads to deeper processing o Challenges to the depth of processing  Sometimes we think that something should be deep, but our performance doesn’t elicit that  If it is a yes v. no response, it shouldn’t justify whether it is deep elaboration or not Retrieving (and Forgetting) Episodic Memories from Long Term Memory  Availability v. Accessibility o Availability: Is that memory actually in LTM? o Accessibility: It’s in LTM but what’s the likelihood that you can retrieve that memory  Tip of the Tongue State o Can’t think of the word in the moment where the next day or later on you’ll remember it o It is available but temporarily inaccessible  Was it decay or interference that was the cause of forgetting? o Jenkins Task  Learn material, sleep, take the test  Remembered over 50 % of the information  Learn material, don’t sleep, take the test  Could only remember 10% after 8 hours  Result: Forgetting is due to interference, but didn’t take into account consolidation (when we sleep)  Retrieval cues: Specification that facilitates memory search o Internal-Which are associated with memory traces, prior knowledge that is integrated with new information  Activation can spread, the thicker the line, the better the connection  Rich network of facts that can help you make many connections o External-Things going on in the environment  Ex. Not taking a test that you originally learned the material in  Successful Retrieval o Attention  Dual tasking reduces retrieval  Fernandes Study  Manipulating how people retrieve information  Had to dual task and some did not o Resulted in a 30-50% reduction in retrieval o Integrating new knowledge with previous knowledge o Relevance of cues-are they good cues?  Encoding Specificity Principle  Same cues at encoding and the same cues at retrieval, thus improving memory  Godden Study o Learned: On the beach or underwater o Retrieved: On the beach or underwater o Performance was the best when learned and retrieval cues matched  Teasdale Study o Mood congruence  Learn happy and test happy  Eich Study o State Dependent  Learn while smoking, test while smoking  Transfer Appropriate of Processing  The encoding and retrieval processes must be the same  Hearing a song when you made while studying will make retrieval easier  Morris Study o Took the levels of processing study (different encoding strategies) and then manipulated what you did at retrieval o Recognition (semantic level) and rhyming test o Why people use rhymes to remember things  Your best memory occurs when both tests are the same (rhyming and the rhyme test) Prospective Memory  Different from LTM because you’re remembering something on your own  “After class, I need to go talk to my professor” Remembering something to do in the future  No retrieval mode and at the proper time and event, you remember to do something  Can remember to do anything  2 Types o Event Based  When a certain event occurs, you remember to do something o Time Based  At a certain time, you remember to do something  At 3:00 I need to pick up my dry cleaning  Habitual or one time tasks o Habitual: Taking vitamins, locking the door when you leave the house  Can’t remember when you did these tasks  Have to monitor your output-have I taken my vitamins today? Did I just think about taking my medications?  Vitamins v. heart medicine-why output monitoring is so necessary  Repetition errors  Omission errors  Source monitoring: confuses thought with action  Temporal confusion: Confuses recent memory with more distant memory  Both source and temporal can lead to both types of errors  Einstein Study  Given several tasks to do and also a prospective memory task  Regular or divided attention  Reminder or no reminder  PM Task: press one key once during each tasks but not within the first 30 seconds 11 times  Older adults in the divided attention tasks- made lots of repetition errors o Prospective memory is very poor o One time tasks: Only one shot at remembering because you only did the task one time  Makes it difficult to study because you basically have only one time to study this!  At 3:00 I have to go to the dentist or after class I have to go see my professor today  Can be either event based or time based  Studying Prospective Memory o Monitoring  Evaluating environmental events for the target  Resource intensive  Negatively affect performance in other things o Spontaneous retrieval  Something just pops into your mind  Reflexive-associative theory  Bread + Kroger sign=Oh I need to buy bread!  Fewer resources  Have the ability to forget what you’re supposed to do  Remembering something that’s not that big of a deal o Makes sense to use both approaches o Everyday Lab Tasks  Remind experimenter to do something  Experimenter says “Remember to remind me to plug the phone in” and the patient has a dual task to do  People may feel uncomfortable telling the experimenter what to do  One time task-hard to remember why they forgot to do something o Naturalistic Tasks  “Call me at 1PM on Friday”  One time task-hard to get accuracy if the participant does it or not  Be careful that people aren’t giving themselves a reminder-takes away the memory component o Computerized Tasks  “How pleasant is this” Rainbow  While preforming this task, press a key when you see an animal word-dual task  Gives us a better idea of what prospective memory looks like o Diary Studies  Write down all the tasks you have to do and write down the tasks that were not done and why o Games  Older adults  Go through the day and remember to do various tasks Everyday Memory Autobiographical Memory-“Our life story”  Special cases of you memory that have to do with your life from the past  Episodic and semantic memories-they are a part of your life story  Events from your past as a participant (your field perspective) or as an observer  Procedural memories and knowledge of self  Not just first person experiences-also includes stories told by others  Uniqueness of Autobiographical Memory o Cabeza Memory  Participants take photos on campus  A photos: taken by the participants  Additional areas of the brain were activated with things that have to do with yourself  Visual space-visual cortex: you can put yourself in that visual space  Hiccocampus: mental time travel-you can re- experience being there when the picture was taken  L photos: taken by the experimenter  Both photos activated the same areas of the brain and are associated with episodic memories  What do we remember? o Emotional events  Birthdays, graduation, bad memories too o Transitions  Birthdays, graduation o Adolescence and early adulthood  Reminiscence bump-right in the middle of this!  Why does this occur? o Life narrative hypothesis: When identity is formed during this time period and major transitions  Immigration study: biggest bump for the 20-24 age group  Immigration including many other transitions  Also cognitive hypothesis o Cognitive hypothesis: Encoding is better in rapid change that’s followed by stability o Cultural script hypothesis: Events that commonly occur are remembered  Easy to fill in the details of what to look for in the future  Leads us to incorrect recollections  Increase in memories during this time  10-30 years old  Tons of transitions and important events occur here o Flashbulb memories  We think that these are good and strong memories when they’re really not  Perceived highly accurate and detailed memories for the circumstances surrounding an event-emotional events (9/11)  May have memories for your own personal events  Evidence for and against flashbulb memories  Conway Study-Flashbulb memories exist o Margret Thatcher incident  Measured people from the UK and US’ recollections  UK: 86%  US: 30%  Christianson Study-Flashbulb memories do NOT exist o 2 groups of people (both in Sweden) measuring 2 different memories o After a year, had better memory of the more significant event, but lacked details-it’s a reconstruction, not a flashbulb memory  Talarico Study-No flashbulb memories o 9/11 memory, everyday memory  People believed that their 9/11 memories were more accurate o After 32 weeks, memories for both events declined in consistency o Always piecing our memories back together, not so much different from other memories Memories of Reconstruction  Memories changed to fit scripts  Combining information into one memory  Remembering information that wasn’t presented-Attributing information to the wrong source  Schemas: A mental framework  Script: A sequence of events that usually occur o What happens in a fast food restaurant v. what happens in a fancy restaurant o Memory is changed to fit scripts  Bartlett Study o People read a story about Native Americans  People would change the details of the story in order to fit their schema-contained errors that reflected their own culture  Canoesboats  Nothing about winning admiration of natives- something the participants added  Brewer Study o Asked participants to recall what the saw in the “office” picture  Said they saw a lamp-when there wasn’t one! Remembering things that would typically belong in an office  Semantic Integration-Putting different memories into one o Bransford Study  Read 24 simple sentences and answer questions about the sentences  5 minutes later, recalled whether they saw a specific sentence  Tests included statements with 1-4 propositions, combined different sentences  Many people say yes that they saw that sentence-not accurate! o Semantic integrationmemory for meaning, lose specific details  Cloth, knitting, haystack, prick, thread, needle, sewing-needle was not on the list o This is a false memory-memories in which the event never occurred o Remember information that wasn’t presented to us- sticky for eye witness testimonies False Memories  Misattribution o Source Misattribution: Misattributing a memory to a person, event, place, time, external/internal source  Hearing it from a friend v. actually reading it online  DRM Paradigm  Subjects studied 12 different word lists and wanted to see how many people recalled the “incorrect” word  Correct recall: 65%  False recall: 40%  False recall experiment 2 o 15 word lists o 55% false recall o Studied items-confidence was very high o Unrelated lure items: turtle, chair, unrelated to the word list: 1.2 o Critical lure: related words, needle o Why in eyewitness testimonies they place so much emphasis on confidence- can be high in confidence yet false!  Does presentation modality affect FM?  Smith Study o Visual: recall 22%, recognition 45% o Auditory: recall 42%, recognition 82%  Higher false memory rates o False Autobiographical Memories  The ability to be implemented into you mind of things that never occured  Lindsay Study  Had contacted student’s parents for real childhood stories  Also had made up stories-going on a hot air balloon st  1 condition: read narratives and real photos from event OR read narratives and no photos  2 ndcondition: read narrative with class photo or none  Then recall events with as much detail as possible and ask if you have a memory from these events  1 week delay  Recall test again o Results: 1 condition: few people with no photo had memory of the event and the people with the photo had little difference between memory or no mndory o 2 condition: had the photo they had memory  Shows that manipulation of false autobiographical memories can occur o Suggestibility-Misleading post event information  Somebody asking you about the event (i.e. car crash)  Loftus Study  Had people watch a video of a car crash  Asked questions about the event-the way in the way they asked the questions changed the peoples answers-How fast was the car going? o Contacted-Over 30 mph o Hit o Bumped o Collided o Smashed-Over 40 mph; more people in this category said there was broken glass  Next day: Did you see broken glass (there was actually no broken glass)  Really changing how people remember events!  Why do false memories occur? o Highly associated words-we naturally think one word that is related to the list is going to occur in the list o Implicit associate responses  Semantic, perceptual associates o Poor source monitoring  Inability to identify if actually presented or internally generated How are images represented? Analog Code: Maps or moving pictures  Preserves relationships among elements of an image; similar to preserving it directly  Ex. The picture of a ball actually being on a box o Picture map  Do we scan mental images similarly if we are looking at a picture? o Finke Study  Farther away the arrow is from the dot, your reaction time is longer  Studied short term and working memory  Same results would occur in long term memory too o Kosslyn Study  Study the picture of the island until you can produce it accurately  Making sure it is in your long term memory-Then they ask you questions about the island  “How long does it take the person to get from the house to the tree?”  Also had the person imagine carrying a bowling ball, reaction time is slower!  Will walk faster is the person knows they have to walk farther  Processing in the same way you would process an actual picture  r=.97 between distance and reaction time  If we truly have an analog code, we should manipulate mental images the same as physical images o Mental rotation with 2-D objects  Will the item be in the correct upright position when rotated?  Reaction time is related to degree in which you have to rotate the object o Mental rotation with 3-D objects  Individual differences  3 approaches  Holistic rotation-taking the whole object and rotating it o Females are usually worse at this!  Piecemeal o Break the object down and matching one piece at a time-a little piece at a time  Viewpoint Independent Strategies o Looking at the internal relationships between the pieces o We may not process mental images the same way in which we process an actual image-same goes for piecemeal Propositional Code: Words and units that express meaning of a stimulus  Ex. ON (BALL, BOX) o Directions (words) Limitations to Imagery  Scanning for hidden images when the image is not in front of us  Imagery & Problem Solving o Can solve a problem better when the numbers are more spaced out  392/4 o Where we know major individual differences occur  Imagery & the Brain o Right hemisphere used for spatial processing o Split brain studies of mental rotation-how do they rotate images?  Letter rotation task: faster and more accurate when the letter is presented to the left visual field (aka right hemisphere)  Can do it on the other side but it is more effective on the right hemisphere  PET Scans o Imagine small letters v. large letters o Different areas of the visual cortex are activated o Imagining=physically seeing the image (same as when seeing small v. large letters)  Imagery & Blind Studies o Blind since birth-all based on things that they are imagining o Have them imagine a target object v. context object  Stereo v. chair (bigger or smaller than the target object) o “Does this stereo have knobs?” If imagined in the context of a large item, harder to think of where the knobs are  Compared to a button (which is smaller) easier to imagine where the knobs on the radio are o Similar results for map studies as in people who are imaging a map in their head  Used 3-D maps o Similar results for letter rotation studies  Used wooden cutouts o Doesn’t necessarily have a visual component! Are able to do imagery tasks even if we have never seen Individual Differences in Imagery  Good Imagers (good v. spatial) o Detailed responses; very vivid images of what the object looks like o Holistic approach o Increased reaction time for fragmented items  Poor Imagers o Tend to break the pieces down o No difference in reaction time in complete or fragmented objects-just going to break it down anyways  Reality Monitoring Errors o Good imagers make more of these! Because these people have very detailed images o Was the object seen or imagined? Imagery and Memory  Creating a mental picture of the stimulus enhances our memory  Paivio: Dual Coding Hypothesis o Creating 2 mental codes enhances memory whereas if you’re just creating one mental code  Visually and semantically o Schnorr Results  Creating a mental image boots recall to 80% whereas rote (maintenance) repetition, recall is only at 40%  Concrete words are better remembered than abstract words o Cookie, car, frog V. freedom, innocence, justice  What kind of imagery are you actually creating? o Bizarre and distinctive images can help improve memory, but only if the images are interacting  Bizarreness doesn’t matter, only the interaction is important  Chunking these images!  Mnemonics o Memory tricks; an active and strategic learning device or method that helps you better remember an item o 3 Principles that must exist in order for mnemonics to work  Practiced repeatedly  Information is integrated into an existing framework  Provides retrieval cues  Something in the strategy that will help point you to the correct item o Method of Loci  Think about a place you are very familiar with (i.e. campus, house)  Mentally walk through this place and pick 5 specific locations from it  Haley Center, concourse, student center  Order of locations is committed to memory  Shopping List: fish, bread, oranges, donuts, grapes  Create mental images of the items in the locations of the place you are familiar with  Match the item with the location  Problem: Interference o Keyword Method  Foreign language vocabulary  Trying to think of an English word that sounds like the foreign word and then link it to the definition of the word and creating a mental image of the 2  Spanish: Carta/Letter  CartLetter is associated with the word cart Imagery and Motor Skills  Performance and imagination have common neural substrates o Functional equivalence BUT not isomorphic  Similar brain areas are activated  Imagining yourself actually acting out the skill leads to significant changes in the brain  Electromyography (EMG) to measure muscle function during motor imagery o Greater activity in deltoids when they imagine lifting with right arm o Simply dreaming about movement corresponds to activity in the muscles  Visuo-Motor Behavioral Rehearsal (VMBR) o Mentally practicing the skill-first person perspective o Not just sports! Musicians too and even taking tests  Vividness of imagery increases with practice and the better the images, the better the outcomes  Performance Enhancement o Mentally practicing free throws: 23% of an increase o Physically practicing free throws: 24% increase o Strong imagers had more benefits than weak imagers Imagery and Learning Skills  Going through each step of the process-directed imagery  73% of directed imagery can improve skill whereas 40% of improvement came from undirected


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