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by: aiy0001

DevelopmentalPsychology-Test4.pdf PSYC 3120

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The last test will cover chapters 15 (middle adulthood physical & cognitive development, 16 (middle adulthood social & personality development), 17 (late adulthood physical & cognitive development)...
Developmental Psychology
Elizabeth Brestan Knight
Class Notes
developmental psychology
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This 25 page Class Notes was uploaded by aiy0001 on Sunday August 21, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 3120 at Auburn University taught by Elizabeth Brestan Knight in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 6 views. For similar materials see Developmental Psychology in Psychology (PSYC) at Auburn University.

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Date Created: 08/21/16
Chapter 15: Middle Adulthood- Physical and Cognitive Development Life expectancy  Americans-76 years  Middle age-38 years o Declines in physical functioning from here  Nerve conduction speed, kidney function, heart function, muscle strength, maximum breathing capacity Sensory and Physical Changes  Vision-Around 40, visual acuity begins to drop o Glaucoma: Damage to the optic nerve; too much fluid is built up in the eye and/or cannot drain properly and therefore, creates pressure o Presbyopia: Difficulty reading fine print; needs reading glasses; pretty much a universal change during middle adulthood o Floaters: Seeing dark specs or dust in the eye o Dry Eye: Eyes don’t produce as much tears; sometimes can’t do contacts anymore o Cataracts: The lens becomes clouded; not wearing sunglasses can be a cause  Hearing o Changes begin around 30; a result from environmental factors such as jobs with loud noises o Due to loss of hair cells in the inner ear o Ear drum becomes less elastic o Presbycusis: Inability to hear sounds of high frequencies o Men are more prone to hearing loss than women starting at 55 o Difficulties of sound localization  Taste and Smell o Taste buds are replaced at a slower rate after 40  Tend to overeat (not getting the same satisfaction when they were younger and eating) and over-salt food to try to taste more flavor o Smell receptors deteriorate  Appearance o Periodontal disease: gum disease o Skin changes: when you get a sun burn, wrinkles occur when you age o Double standard: In movies, older men can be considered to be a heartthrob, but not the same for women  Body Composition o Proportion to muscle fat  By 60, people have lost about 10% of their maximum strength o Osteoporosis: Bones become brittle, fragile, and thin; often brought about by lack of calcium in diet o Waist and hips start to grow  Hormones o Growth hormones declines as well as sex hormones o Menopause  Female climacteric: The transition from being able to have children to not  Where a women can’t reproduce anymore  47-52 years old  Can come at an earlier time if one has a hysterectomy  Different by every individual  In cultures where it’s normal to have lots of children, women report to be happier  Japanese and Chinese women (compared to Caucasian women) reported fewer overall symptoms  Estrogen Replacement Therapy  Study of Women’s Health Across the Nation o Longitudinal study for 10 years o Physical measures, blood tests, questionnaires o Increase risk for heart disease and breast cancer- negative effects! o Perimenopause  Hormone-related changes in the body that happen 10 years before menopause when hormone production begins to change  Could start earlier than you might expect! o Male Menopause  Not really one…but there is enlargement of the prostate gland Middle Age and Sexuality  Doesn’t fade away!  Usually have more freedom for this enjoyment Guest Speakers: 3 women Chapter 16: Middle Adulthood- Social and Personality Development Societal Changes  Childbirth: 30-40  Second careers  Early retirement or none Normative-Crisis Model (Older Model)  Focused on traditional gender roles o Typical for women to be stay at home moms and men to be the breadwinner  Stage models-what to do in a crisis (age related) Life Events Model  The timing of events in your life can change you o Parenthood earlier or later in life  The particular events (rather than age) that determines the course of personality development Erickson’s Generativity v. Stagnation Stage (Middle Adulthood Period)  Perception of life is most important  A certain crisis  Stagnation o Focusing on trivial/detailed aspects of life o Limited contributions to the world o Their presence has only counted for little o Some might look for new and more fulfilling careers and some become frustrated and bored  Generativity o Helps to guide future generations through their contributions to society  Could be biological, parental (spending a lot of time parenting), work (mentoring), cultural (community service) George Valliant  Another crisis theory o Keeping the meaning v. rigidity  Accepting that there’s going to be imperfections in their life o Content with the meaning they have found in their lives o If they don’t accept, this could lead to isolation/rigidity  45-55 years old Levinson’s Seasons of Life: Applies mainly to men  Middle Adulthood (40-45) o Middle/midlife transition: a time of questioning  Experiences the first signs of aging and confront the knowledge that they will be unable to accomplish all their aims before they die  Early 40’s are a period of transition and crisis  Midlife crisis  Uncertainty and indecisions; not sure what to do with their life; correcting missed opportunities and mistakes  Their future is going to depend on resolving this midlife crisis  Critical Drawbacks to this theory  Still up for debate; may or may not be a thing  His theory was only based on a group of 40 men!  There is this wide expectation that by the age of 40, one is bound to have a midlife crisis when really, there is insufficient evidence Empty Nest Syndrome: When children leave the house (for college or a job), parents may have feelings of unhappiness, worry, loneliness, and depression Role Reversal/Sandwich Generation: Middle adults who feel the need to take care of their children and also their aging parents Boomerang Children: Young adults who return home (after leaving home for some time) to live with their parents; may be due to economic issues or not being able to find a job or marriage troubles Chapter 17: Late Adulthood- Physical and Cognitive Development U.S. Demographics  1 in 8 are over 65 o A privilege! Great medical care therefore, living longer  Harder finding jobs in the future because people who are living longer are working longer  Decreased workforce in the medical field specifically for the elderly o By 2050, 25% of our population will be over 65  Doubled in the last 2 decades  Oldest old-85 years old  Hawaii has the greatest life expectancy in the US Elderly Cartoon Character Study  Depicted as more negative  Glasses, canes, difficulty walking  Poor hearing  Ill Advertising for Elders  SUV’s  Reading glasses o “Fun and flirty”  “Travel chair” o Looks like Burberry o Not sturdy o Can’t roll themselves-not independent  Canes o Intricate designs  Utensils o Good grips-for people with arthritis  Shirt Saver o “A bib” Could help with arthritis  Lamp o Touch the metal and it’ll turn on  Eye drop helper o Cataracts  Telephone o Hearing and visually impaired  Poncho Ageism  Prejudice and discrimination of older people-against the law for hiring; asking how old you are or what your marital status is and even forcing people into retirement o Younger people can have negative attitudes of older people; thinking they’re incapable of doing things  Looking to see who’s driving  Elderspeak-Talking differently to elders than to younger people o Found that people talk the same way to babies as they do to elders “How are youuuuu doing?”  Double Standards continues Aging Theories  Programmed Theories o DNA only allows to replicate a certain amount of times  A built in time limit for the reproduction of cells  After a certain amount of time, the cells are no longer able to divide, and the individual begins to deteriorate  Slows down as you get older  Telomeres shorten as cells divide; when the telomeres have just about disappear, the cells stop replicating o Decrease in hormones o Illnesses take a toll; immune system doesn’t work as well  Wear and T ear Theories o Mechanical functions of the body wear out o Free radicals increase and therefore (involved in chemical reactions) allows for the disruption of cell functions  Free radicals may be may be related to a lot of age related problems such as cancer, heart disease, and diabetes  No definitive support for either one of these theories Factors in Life Expectancy  Positive o Female (because they live longer) o Light drinking o Exercising o Sexual relations o College education-What helps to promote life; leads to jobs o Rural living-less pollution and crowds make for less stress o Marriage-social support o Easy going personality  Negative-just the opposite of the positives o Attitude does affect life expectancy! Fountain of Youth-What prevents the body from breaking down?  Telomere therapy: lengthening telomeres  Reducing free radicals with antioxidant drugs  Restricting calories  Replacing worn out organs-serious ethical issue! Physical Disorders-None of these are life threatening  Osteoporosis  Arthritis  Hypertension (high blood pressure)-may lead to a stroke Deadly Disorders-Due to long-term behavior patterns  Heart disease o Astherosclerosis: Fat circulates in your body from the food you eat, which impedes blood flow and therefore leads to a heart attack because you’re not getting enough oxygen  Stroke: Blood clot stops the flow of blood to the brain o Stroke on the right side of the brain causes paralyses on the left side of the body and vice versus o Affects short term memory Alzheimer’s Disease-Causes  Beta amyloid precursor-don’t know what triggers this! Guest Speaker: 1 woman; 64, picked up hobbies around the house (replacement activities), social life shifted from work to neighborhood, girls night, transition to retirement was easier with the marriage of her son, not planning on slowing down even though she has arthritis, wants grandchildren Chapter 18: Social and Personality Development in Late Adulthood Gerontology  Study of old age  Basic personality traits that remain stable as you grow up o Agreeableness, satisfaction, intellect, extroversion (a possible dip), energy level, acceptance of change Grandparents  Adults spend as much as 1/3 of their lifespan as grandparents (because of better healthcare!) o Of course the path of your career and family plays a role  Beliefs, values, and standards are things they want to pass on to the next generation (their grandchildren)  Grandmothers o More involved than grandfathers  Maternal grandparents have a stronger bond (something that has been reported across cultures)  Closer bonds between the same sexes o The strongest being the granddaughter and grandmother Social Class/Ethnic Factors  Low income families-why grandparents can be a great resource; same with children in single parent homes  African American, Asian, and Hispanic grandparents are reported to be more involved (living in close quarters)  2 million American children are with their grandparents o Legal custody, child support-stress (including financial and physical)  Grandmother Group o Support group for grandmas caring for their grandchildren Great Grandchildren  Most grandparents don’t have a close relationship with their great grandchildren Aspects of being a Grandparent  Positive o A valued elder o Immortality through their descendants o Re-involvement with personal past o Indulgence (spoiling) Grandparenting Styles  Involved o Disciplined; doing the things a caregiver will do; authoritative but in a good way  Companionate o Buddy-buddy relationship  Remote o Non-existent relationship Changing Role of Grandparents  Technology-Facetime, Skype, lose edge of being able to explain a lot about technology  Peers  Mobile society  Adult communities-60+ (segregation); rules against having children stay there Adult Grandchildren  Provides a wider network for grandparents  Having someone to visit grandparents! Normative Crisis Model  Robert Peck o Ego-differentiation v. Work-role preoccupation (redefinition of self v. preoccupation with work role)  People who are focused on their career feel the need to retire but can’t because they feel their job is all they are  The person would have to come up with a whole list of other things to do  Less emphasis on viewing themselves as their job but rather on attributes that don’t involve work (redefining themselves) o Body transcendence v. Body preoccupation  Easy to become preoccupied with your body health wise  Important to be aware of the changes of your body and not to get hung up over the different aspects  Learning to cope and move beyond the physical changes o Ego transcendence v. ego preoccupations  Person has to find positive things in the world instead of focusing on the negative  Coming to terms with their near death  Erik Erikson o Theory of Psychosocial Development  Ego Integrity v. Despair  Going on their last few years feeling like they didn’t accomplish anything v. feeling like you had a worthwhile life and have a sense of satisfaction and accomplishment  Selectivity Theory o Social networks become more selective as we age o Don’t need social interaction in the same way that younger people do i.e. internships, research labs  Information  Affirmation-goals are different o Emotion regulation-still needed!  Rewarding relationships The Bad News  Daniel Levinson o The transition from 60-65 years  Struggle with self-definition  Loss of power, respect, authority (retirement) The Good News  Levinson cont.  Elders can serve as resources to younger people (career choices)  Advice Personality Factors  Disengagement Theory o Gradual withdrawal from relationships  Retirement o Choose social roles that they want o NOT universal! Not everyone pursues their older years like this  Activity Theory o Maintains same involvement as in middle age o Replacement of activities  Not all contribute to happiness o Some prefer to slow down  Continuity Theory o Maintain desired involvement o Do what makes sense for them Economics of Late Adulthood  11% below poverty line o Women are twice as likely to live in poverty and divorced women are worse off  Elderly often live on a fixed income that rarely keeps up with inflation  Elderly face rising costs o Medicine can be expensive as well as nursing homes Chapter 19: Death and Dying Do we deny death?  The average person sees over 13,000 deaths on TV and movies by 21  Deaths typically occur in hospitals o It is rare to have seen someone die Cultural differences and grieving  Deaths from Ebola in Africa  Traditional funeral processions in U.S.  Funerals inside the home in Puerto Rico  Wearing white to a funeral in India  Cremating in Thailand Developmental Understanding of Death (Concepts of Death)  Permanence o Once the physical body dies, it doesn’t come back  Universality o The realization that everyone dies  Nonfunctionality o The body is not functional anymore 2-6 Year Olds  View death as temporary or reversible  May take responsibility for the death; think it’s their fault o Talk to children about death-very important!  Benefit greatly from it  Develop a concept of death by 5 years old  May appear unaffected by death of a loved one 6-9 Year Olds  May still take responsibility for death of someone  Understand that a death is final at 9 years old 9-12 Year Olds  May still take responsibility for death of someone  Can most likely handle all the information one would give to an adult, unlike a child where you would talk in simpler terms  Can understand customs involved with death 12-19 Year Olds  Understands the 3 developmental understandings of death, but this is limited to the realm of possibility  Personal fables-this won’t happen to me  Romanticize death-seeing all the love people are getting after they passed away  Risky behavior causes most teenage deaths Common Reactions to Grief in Childhood  Negative behavior-start to act out o A way of expressing grief  Increased activity-not ADHD o Why you ask if there’s been any changes in the family so you can rule out ADHD  Dependency-needing extra help  Regression-suck thumb, wetting the bed (anxiety), sitting on peoples laps o Self soothing behaviors Death in Young Adulthood (chronic illnesses)  A desire to keep intimate relationships  Focusing on the here and now  Still interested in the future even though it is uncertain  Common to be very angry at the illness- where a psychologist might come in  “I’ve only lived this many years, I feel cheated” Death in Middle Age  Aware that they are going to die someday  Considers death in a realistic manner  Fears of death are greater during now than at any other time Death in Late Adulthood  Know with certainty that death is coming- not so worried; ready  Disengagement theory: Withdraw from society and activities; helps to preserve energy and doing things that mean a lot to them  Faces a large amount of death in their environment  More realistic about death  Suicide rate increases during this time o Specifically in white males; don’t want to be a burden for people; don’t feel comfortable being dependent Definitions of Death  Functional Death: Body loses functions such as blood flow, respiration, etc.  Brain Death: Brain wave activity stops; no way to bring waves back Kubler-Ross’ Stages of Dying-Don’t have to go in order! For people going though death and someone watching someone die  Denial a.Resisting the idea that they are dying b.Don’t believe tests and order more; want to believe that it’s a mistake c.Defense mechanism d.Helps come to terms with the news of illness  Anger e.Direct their anger towards others f. “Why me?” “This isn’t fair”  Bargaining g.Trying to negotiate out of death-“I’ll do charity” or “I’ll make amends” h.Will dedicate their lives to do good  Depression o Reactive depression-depressed about an event that has already occurred o Prepatory depression-depressed about an event that will occur (future losses)  Acceptance o Neutral, at peace with death  Hard for family members; they want to fight the death (or it could be the other way around) o Fully aware that death is approaching Evaluating these Stages  Stages are not universal  Could go through these stages if you’re not dying; like if you lost your job or went through a bad breakup  Don’t go through the same sequence  Some may even go through the sequence several times Bereavement: The knowledge that someone has died Greif: The emotional response that goes along with the knowledge that someone died; can last a while  Typical responses o Shock and denial  Shutting down emotionally  The minds way of protecting the body o Protest stage  Realization of loss (1 week after)  On autopilot o Despair o Acceptance o Accommodation (final stage)  No time limit for these typical responses of grief-very important to be sensitive Death can be an expensive affair!  No credit cards Hospice care  Care provided for the dying in places devoted to those who are terminally ill  Warm, supportive environment  Making their final days pleasant and meaningful


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