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Week 2 Notes

by: Elizabeth Loos

Week 2 Notes KINS 2531 01H

Elizabeth Loos
GPA 3.0

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About this Document

These notes cover pH, Buffers, Acids, Bases, and Homeostasis.
Anatomy and Physiology 1
Dr. Diana Sturgess
Class Notes
pH, buffers, Weak Acids/Bases vs. Strong Acids/Bases, homeostasis
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Elizabeth Loos on Sunday August 21, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to KINS 2531 01H at Georgia Southern University taught by Dr. Diana Sturgess in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 61 views. For similar materials see Anatomy and Physiology 1 in Kinesiology at Georgia Southern University.

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Date Created: 08/21/16
Monday, 08/22/2016 Homeostasis -ability to maintain a relatively stable internal environment in an ever-changing outside world; dynamic state of equilibrium maintained by chemical, thermal, and neural factors -has 3 components Receptors (Sensor)- special structure in the body that detects change Control Centers (Brain)- takes in change, analyzes, and makes decisions on how to correct the change Effectors (Muscles/Glands)- does what is needed to do to correct the change -Maintains life Stress is anything that changes or effects homeostasis AnAfferent Pathway is the pathwayy where information from receptor to control center An Efferent Pathway is the pathway that takes commands from the control center to the effectors Negative Feedback Loops- mechanism to keep a variable close to its set point - the output reduces or shuts off the original stimuli=Corrective Effect *Most hormones use Negative Feedback Ex. The Nervous system: body temperature sensing nerve cells in hypothalamus control shivering, sweating, and vasomotor activity *Vasodilation is the increasing in size of veins when it is hot *Vasoconstriction is the decreasing in size of twins when it is cold; can cause frost bite in the extremities (nose, fingers, toes, and ears) Ex. Endocrine System: control of glucose levels Positive Feedback Loops- the change/output proceeds in the same direction as the initial disturbance= self-amplifying -can be a normal way of producing rapid changes i.e. birth, clotting -can cause disease i.e. life threatening fever *Oxytocin-pituitary gland that increases the strength of muscles causing a person/woman to be able to give birth Wednesday, 08/24/2016 Maintaining Homeostasis Interaction of organ systems •Health of the skeleton requires Ca ions •Integumentary system, digestive system, urinary system Blood pressure 120/80 mmHg • •Circulatory system, urinary system, endocrine system, muscular system •Respiratory function •Circulatory system, muscular system, nervous system APPLICATION OF HOMEOSTATIC MECHANISMS Factors or situations that could disrupt homeostasis. Receptor level • Ex. pain • •Control center level •Diabetes insipidus (ADH) •Effector level •“Locked” knees Types of problems that can occur. Spinal cord trauma 
 Getting the “wind knocked out” 
 Three Things Required to Sustain Life Pressure Nutrients Oxygen Matter=Stuff Anything that has substance (mass) and takes up space (volume) o Can be solid, liquid, gas Is composed of elements, unique substances that cannot be broken into simpler substances by regular chemical methods. 
 Each element has a letter symbol on the periodic table 
 ATOMS - “INDIVISIBLE” • Elements consists of atoms 
 • An atom is smallest part of an element that still has the properties of 
 that substance. 
 • Atoms give the element its unique physical and chemical properties and can be broken down into subatomic particles 
 THEATOMIC STRUCTURE • Each element has two numbers associated with it, that give us certain facts about the structure of the atom 
 • Atomic number: number of protons in nucleus 
 • Atomic mass number: the sum of the mass of protons + mass of neutrons (in amu) 
 MORE ON ELECTRONS • Electrons are present in regions called shells or energy levels. 
 • The lowest (first) energy level is closest to the nucleus, the higher 
 energy levels are farther from the nucleus (1-7 shells) 
 • Energy levels fill from the inside out 
 • The outermost energy level is called the valence shell 
 • determines chemical bonding properties • subject to the octet rule – 8 is great!!! 
 MOLECULESAND COMPOUNDS • Atoms of different elements are different. 
 • Atoms can combine to form molecules.Amolecule contains two or more atoms of the same element. • Acompound is a molecule that contains two or more different elements. IONS •An ion is an atom that has acquired an electrical charge by either losing or gaining an electron. Friday, 08/26/2016 pH scale • What does pH stand for? 
 • It represents the acid or basic 
 strength of the solution 
 • Measures the concentration of H+ ions (and hydroxide ions) in solution 
 • Ascale from 0 to 14 o 7 is neutral 
 o <7 is acidic o >7 is basic 
 Normal pH range of ECF is 7.35 to 7.45 Normal pH range of ICF is 7 Convulsions Coma BUFFERS Our body uses BUFFERS to resist changes in pH There are two major groups of buffers
 1. Physiological buffers: respiratory and urinary systems FAST (min), limited quantity Slow (hours), large quantity 2. Chemical buffers o Bicarbonate (in ECF), phosphate (in ICF in kidney tubules) and protein systems (in ICF/ECF) o bind H+ and transport H+ to an exit (kidney/lung) PROPERTIES OF WATER The most abundant compound in living things: 50-75% 1. Has thermal properties 2. Is a lubricant in body cavities 3. Has chemical reactivity o Hydrolysis: macromolecules break into smaller molecules by adding water o Dehydration: smaller molecules join to macromolecules by removing water 4. Has surface tension - is the result of the tendency of water molecules to attract one another ( cohesion) 5. Water is the universal solvent oAsolvent is a liquid or gas in which some other substance (solute) was dissolved o Solvent + solute = solution • Solution o Is homogeneous, transparent and remains mixed o Solute particles are small and can pass through membranes o Examples:
 • Glucose in blood • Saline solutions
 • Sugar in coffee • REMEMBER! “Like dissolves like”


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