Popular in Cognitive Psychology
Popular in Psychology (PSYC)
This 17 page Class Notes was uploaded by aiy0001 on Sunday August 21, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 3540 at Auburn University taught by Dr. Callender in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 5 views. For similar materials see Cognitive Psychology in Psychology (PSYC) at Auburn University.
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Date Created: 08/21/16
Cognitive Language Psycholinguistics: The study of language and how it is used and learned by people Language: A shared symbolic system for communication Meaning is carried by sounds and words but not inherent o Apple: All these different ways that you can say apple (in different languages), yet they all mean the same thing World Language 7,000 known living languages: languages that are still used by people today All of them have grammars and the same type of rules, yet they are very different dialects o Differences in terms of grammar, words, and accents Properties of Language Semanticity: Language carries meaning Arbitrary: For any object, we can give it a name Flexible: Due to technology, words can change Naming: In order for us to talk about an object, we have to give it a name o May a give a different name to the same thing in order to specify different connotations Displacement: Critical piece between us and animals-The ability to talk about the past and the future; not just talking about the present Productivity: We can produce language and new combinations of words all the time o Children as young as 2 have the ability to do this Basic Units of Language Phoneme: The most basic unit of language, applies to any language o Smallest distinctive units of sound o 200 phonemes across the known human language-but English only has 46 o Can change meaning, but they don’t carry meaning Ex. BatCatMatPatFat The basic sounds don’t carry any meaning o Phoneme Combinations: Rules for how phonemes are combined Phonemic Competence: Knowledge of the rules of phonemic combinations Phonology: The sounds of language and the rule system for combining them o Have to have a Q and a U next to each other when spelling out a word o Wouldn’t spell a word starting with Zk Morphemes o Smallest meaningful unit of language o Can be free: Only an individual word o Does not mean that it’s a single syllable Car, dog, giraffe o Can be bound: The ending or beginning of a word that carries meaning Un-, -ness, -s o Un-believ-able: 3 Words: Group of morphemes Phrase: Organized group of words Sentence: Grammatical arrangement of phrases Speech Perception Categorical perception o Pot v. spot o Ba and pa: only differ based on the voice onset time Speech is messy o Segmentation problem: No physical breaks in acoustical signal Taking a constant stream and breaking it down into meaningful units o Problem of Invariance: Phonemes can sound different based on surrounding sounds and words Coarticulation: More than one sound is articulated at the same time Ex. The ‘D’ sound has a different acoustical signal when followed by an ‘I’ than when followed by an ‘o’ McGurk Effect: An auditory illusion o Speech perception interacts with visual perception o Infants (1-4 months) can discriminate between sound pairs (‘b’ and ‘p’) o Infants can discriminate between non-native sounds before 6-8 months Articulation: Pronouncing the sounds that we produce Air flow based on the use of lips, teeth, and tongue Speech Development: Delays in language could be a strong marker in Autism Spectrum Disorder; people are very concerned with this! Common errors (up to 4-5 years old) don’t freak out because these are normal! o Velar Fronting: Velar sounds replace with consonant at front of the mouth o Consonant Harmony: Same sounds being repeated Sunglasses-Sunsasses o Weak Syllable Deletion: Unstressed syllables removed Lydia-ia o Cluster Reduction: Simplify clusters, dropping one of the consonants Spider-pider o Gliding of Liquids (R and L-most difficult to produce-4 years old): replaced by W or Y o Stopping: Fricative-forcing air through your mouth instead of putting your lips together and stopping Funny-punny Understanding Words: Critical to understanding language Phonemic Restoration: We don’t always here the sounds in a word o We use top-down processing in order to fill in the missing sounds o Also use the context to figure out what the word might be Lexical Ambiguity: There are words that have multiple meanings o When it comes to reading, not spoken words-have to figure out the context Linguistic Competence and Performance What is a good indicator of performance? o Chomsky: Competence and performance Competence: Do we know the rules of the language we speak? Internalized knowledge Much better to look at this rather than performance! (According to Chomsky) Syntax: The set of rules for ordering words into acceptable and well-formed sentences o Word Order: fire engine red v. red fire engine Small change, yet it carries a very different meaning o Phrase order: Bill told the men to deliver the piano on Monday v. Bill told the men on Monday to deliver the piano You don’t know when the piano will be delivered! o Generating meaning from syntax Parsing: Breaking the sentence up into phrases to make sense of it The old man/ went to the store Researchers use ‘garden path sentences’ o The old man the boat- The old (people) man the boat-man acts as a verb here Performance: The actual language someone generates o All these different factors could influence performance where it’s why competence is a better measure than performance Reading and Comprehension Reading Acquisition How do we learn to read? o Mastering the alphabetic principle is essential to reading o Methods that explicitly teach this principle are important Phonological Awareness Appreciation of sound Group of words by sound Blend and split syllables Phonemic segmentation Manipulate phonemes Do we always sound out words? Lexical route: Previously learned words (visual access) Orthographic route: New words (recoding) English Shallow v. deep languages o One to one correspondence-Shallow Finnish, Hungarian, Polish o One to many correspondence-Deep English, Arabic Maintains morphology (nature v. natural) How do we study comprehension? Rapp 2006 o Products of comprehension-Offline Methods Free recall, inference tasks, short answer, multiple choice o Process of comprehension-Online methods Eye tracking-gaze location and duration Moving window-reading times Think alouds Word probes What do people do during reading? Online measures of comprehension o Eye tracking-track gaze movement, fixations, regressions Fixations: Words that the reader looks at and time Regressions: Movements to prior text information Why Measure Eye Gaze? Immediacy Assumption: Each word is interpreted as it’s encountered Eye Mind Assumption: Eye remains fixated as long as word is being actively processed Less than 85% of content words are fixated o Content words skipped if they are skimmed, you’re speed reading, or if the word is predictable About 35% function words are fixated (the, of, to, a, that) Saccades (eye movements) are 30 milliseconds) Make multiple fixations on the same word Comprehension Apply general understanding of language Apply general conceptual knowledge (general knowledge and context) o Different meanings between one word-BAT Understanding Text Construction Integration Model Levels of Representation o Surface level o Textbase: Meaning that can be extracted from the sentence o Situation model: Integrated representation that includes explicit meaning and prior knowledge, inferences, spatial/temporal relationships Surface level is lost Coherence Information is related and connected Text cohesion McNamara: Readers of different abilities require texts of varying coherence Text + Situation Model Coherence Inference Process of drawing the connections Determines referents and derives conclusions High cohesion: Requires few inferences Low cohesion: Requires many inferences Inferences Filling in the gaps in a text with prior knowledge Anaphoric inferences: Connect an object or person in one sentence to an object or person in another sentence o Fifi, the famous poodle, won the dog show. She has now won the last 3 shows she has entered Bridging Inferences o Unstated text connections o Preserve message coherence The bridge collapsed. The wood was rottenThe bridge was made of wood o Causal Sharon took some aspirin. Her headache went awayAspirin gets rid of headaches Elaborative Inferences: Expands upon the text o Not necessary to maintain coherence o Instrumental: Supply typical object for a verb Pounding a nailA hammer was used o Semantic inference: Adds an appropriate meaning The girl rolled a tomatothe tomato is round o Predictive Inferences: Inference for what will happen next He threw a vase against the wallThe vase breaks Neurolinguistics Language localization o Mainly in the left hemisphere Exception: 5% of right handed and 50% of left handed is localized in the right hemisphere or equally in both o Right hemisphere hold the emotional tone of the message and metaphors Aphasia: Damage to the brain that disrupts language and communication Broca’s area: speech production o Motor deficit-struggle to speak words, but can comprehend speech o Use single words or few grammatical markers o Some difficulty in understanding language (He showed her baby the pictures V. He showed her the baby pictures) Wernicke’s area: speech comprehension o Comprehension of speech is impaired o Linguistic soup: Contains syntactic structure but full of nonsense Producing meaningless speech (gibberish) o Difficulty in understanding words o Left hemisphere is adjacent to the auditory context Conduction aphasia: word repetition Anomia: Impairment in ability to retrieve a concept and say its name o Circumlocution: Replaces irretrievable word o Store-Place that sells things o Hat-Article of clothing you wear on your head Agraphia: Disruption in writing, no disruption in other motor skills Alexia: Disruption in reading Pure Word Deafness: Cannot understand spoken language Bilingualism 50% of the world’s population is somewhat bilingual Additive Bilingualism: Proficiency in second language with no loss in the first, learned language Subtractive Bilingualism: New language replaces first language Simultaneous Bilingualism: Learns 2 languages at the same time Sequential Bilingualism: Acquires a second language later Advantages o Gains more expertise in L1 o Greater metalinguistic skills o Greater knowledge of grammar o Better at switching tasks o Better at problem solving, concept formation, and visual spatial tasks o Greater creativity Critical Period Language acquisition period: 2-11 years old In recent research, there has been a gradual decline in the ability to learn a second language, not an abrupt drop Special Cases: Feral Children “wild children” Difficulty in learning language Peter-Germany 1724 Victor-1799 o Milk “lait” and my God “oh dieu” had great difficulty Kamala and Amala-Discovered by Reverend J.A.L Singh 1920 o About 30 words-mainly sounds Special Cases: Isolated Children Isabelle-Discovered at 6 o Intact language functioning in 1 year o Comparable to peers Genie-Discovered in 1970 at 14 in LA o Isolated since 20 months o Ability to learn some words, inability to construct complete sentences Age of Acquisition Phonology-Sounds of speech o Younger ages are more able to pronounce words like native speaker Vocabulary-Age not related Chapter 11: Problem Solving Problem: A situation with no immediate and apparent standard routine of figuring out something Structure of the problem Within every problem… o There’s a goal state Getting the car unlocked o And a initial or start state Keys locked in the car Subgoals Through the window o Nested subgoals Find coat hanger Get other keys Break into car Types of Problems Well Defined o Initial and goal state are clearly defined o Specify all relevant information o Possible rules and moves are known o Ex. chess Ill Defined o Initial and goal state are not clearly defined o Unsure on what the question is or what the situation might look like o Ex. real world decisions Insight (ah-ha moment) o A spontaneous solution just emerges o In other problems, there’s a gradual increase of understanding where with this problem, it happens all of a sudden o Ex. Invert the triangle in only 3 moves Animal Problem Solving Chimps-filled the tube up with water to get the peanut out; if they understand what the goal is, the chimps will help you too Birds-Solving subgoals Real World Problem Solving Heuristics Random search o Trial and error o Thorndike’s puzzle box Trial and error for the cat to figure out how to get out of the box Hill climbing o Take a move that gets you closer to the end goal o Still have to engage in some trial and error o Ex. solving a maze Means Ends Analysis General Problem Solver-Newell & Simon o Computer simulation of human problem solving o Memory and strategy defined precisely in the program Don’t have to guess what the computer is doing o Any problem that could be solved with means-end analysis Role of Working Memory and Executive Processes Tower of Hanoi: Problem solver needs to figure out and track operations required to reach goal state-therefore, must maintain goals and subgoals Neuroimaging o Healthy Activation in right dorsolateral pre-frontal cortex Frontal lobe key for problem solving, working memory, and executive processes o Non-healthy-Lesions to the frontal lobe Poorer performance using means end analysis Poorer performance using hill climbing Functional Fixedness We tend to only see objects in their traditional uses and not in a novel way o Thus, we are unable to solve problems using a novel use of an object Cannot get past the conventional use of something Problem Solving Strategies Breadth First: Try all of the main strategies first to see which is successful o Research shows this is the best approach o Most people just try it, and that’s it! Depth First: Work on one strategy, delving deeper into it to try to achieve success How Experts Solve Problems Chase and Simon 1973: Expert v. Novice Chess Players o 1. Study a chess board for 5 seconds o 2. Board is removed o 3. Participants are asked to reconstruct old board on a new board When the chess pieces were in the valid places, the experts could recall the positions (used stored patterns) o When they were randomly arranged, experts struggles (never before seen patterns, no schemas to use) Search Patterns o Experts tend to forward search (initialstate goal) A doctor works from the symptoms to the diagnosis o A medical student would most likely use backward search (goal of the diagnosissymptoms) May go through various possible diseases and conditions in their mind Evaluate whether the symptoms fit Rules and Hypothesis Testing Disconfirmation: Falsify your hypothesis Confirmation Bias: Looks for evidence that confirms your hypothesis Reasoning -Not a lot of research on reasoning and problem solving Deductive Reasoning: Given a specific premise and draw a logical conclusion from it Categorical syllogisms: all, no, or some o Consists of 3 statements Premises are the first 2 statements-the two truths Conclusion is the last one and logically drawn from the premises Doesn’t necessarily mean that it’s true, but it could be valid Abstract example All A are B All B are C therefore, All A are Cmakes a valid conclusion Concrete example All poodles are dogs All dogs are animals therefore, All poodles are animalsvalid and true conclusion Validity: Is the syllogism constructed so the conclusion follows the premises? Not valid o Premise 1: All red cars are sports cars o Premise 2: All red cars are fast o Conclusion: All sport cars are fast Not valid o Premise 1: All of the students are tired o Premise 2: Some tired people are irritable o Conclusion: Some of the students are irritable Truth: Is the syllogism true? Does it make sense? Something can be valid but not true Conditional syllogisms: if and then o Antecedent: IF o Consequent: THEN o Evidence: either affirms or denies the antecedent or the consequent o Ex. If P then Q P: affirms the antecedentValid (Modus Ponens) Not P: denies the antecedentNot valid Q: Affirms the consequentInvalid Not Q: Denying the consequentValid o If it rains (P), then I take an umbrella to work (Q) Evidence (Premise 2) It is raining: affirms the antecedents: Logically valid It is not raining: denies the antecedent: Doesn’t allow you to draw any conclusions (invalid) I take an umbrella to work: Doesn’t allow you to make a conclusion (invalid) I don’t take an umbrella to work-denies the consequent: Logically valid o If I forget to study, I will fail the exam I forgot to study, therefore I failed the examValid I studied, therefore I passed the examInvalid I failed the exam, therefore I forgot to studyInvalid I passed the exam, therefore I studiedValid Errors in evaluating syllogisms o 2 reasons Atmosphere Effect All+All=All Some+All=Some Belief Bias If the conclusion is true or agrees with what we believe initially, we will believe it’s valid Development of Deductive Reasoning o Stage 1: 4-6 years old Conditional relationships Eat your dinner or you won’t get dessert Pick up your toys or they will be taken away Possess logic, can use it, but are not aware of the logic Not aware when logic is incorrect either Can solve concrete problems using this kind of logic o Stage 2: 6-10 years old Multiple possibilities for what could happen in a situation-big jump! Understand the conclusions must follow the premises and that it must be logical Aware of their logical reasoning In Piaget’s theory, this is concrete overlapping with formal operations o Stage 3: 10 + Counterfactual reasoning: False premises but logically valid Often have to learn, not very natural Able to see underlying structure of the argument (validity) rather than the truth or surface features Piaget’s formal operational stage-problem is many adults can’t do this; have problems with reasoning on an abstract level Linear Reasoning: A linear relationship between objects such as height, weight, intelligence, etc. John is taller than Ted (A) Ted is taller than George (B) Therefore, John is taller than George (C) Seriation: Putting objects in some sort of order o Organizing by color, size, really any dimension and figuring out how to order items o Children can do multiple seriation by 7 Transitivity: If a relation exists between items A and B, and for B and C, also true for A and C Linear Reasoning and Narrative o Ex. 4 scientists are trying to figure out who’s the smartest Breaking down inferences (may be verbatim or not) Easier to do 3 step inferences than ones that are closer together Reasoning and Clinical Populations Aging Populations o Deficits due to diseases, brain damage, and depression o Training can mitigate decline o In older adults, speed of processing is slower Hard to process many pieces, form logical arguments, and understand things Schizophrenia o Logical conversion: Treat sentences as reversible All cars are slowAll slow things are cars o Paralogic: Follows normal logic but sees similar things as identical Jesus had a beard, I have a beard, therefore I am Jesus Decision Making Rational Choice Theory A. 20% chance of getting $2000-expected gain $400 B. 40% chance of getting $1000-expected gain $400 C. 50% chance of getting $500-expected gain $250 We should make our decision based on chance X payoff=expected gain One way we make decisions is “by the seat of our pants” Unconscious Thought Theory Few resources-doing something else Top-down processing Weighs relative importance and because of this, we make fairly good decisions General Approaches Algorithms: complex rule of thumb where you always get the correct answer o Going the long way to get the answer-time consuming o If you toss a coin, what is the probability of getting heads? 50-50 (89% get this correct) o If you toss a coin, what is the probability of getting heads two times in a row? .5 X .5=.25 (only 42% get this correct) Statistics are largely based on algorithms People don’t know how to apply these algorithms- how lotteries play them o Rational Choice Theory: Chance X Payoff o Subjective Utility: Chance X Subjective value How do you determine subjective value? Weighing different options? Heuristic: Short cut, but may not always produce the correct answer o Representativeness Heuristic: Based on the whole population Birth order: If a family has six children, which is more likely? BGBGBG OR GGGGGG They’re the same! We don’t know what true randomness looks like “Does this sample match true randomness” Based on the similarity between a sample and its population Emphasizes important characteristics of a sample-sometimes we take this too far which leads to incorrect inferences Gambler’s Fallacy: Belief that deviations from expected behavior will be evened out by opposite deviations in the future-due to true randomness, there is no evening out If the same thing happens over and over again, we expect that something different is going to happen for the next time George is slim, short, and likes to read poetry Is George a professor of classics at an Ivy League school? o Ivy league schools-8 o How many classic professors at each school? 5 X 8=40 o How many are slim and short? .5 X 4=20 o How many like to read poetry? .5 X 20=10 Is George a truck driver? o How many truck drivers? 1 million o How many are short and slim? 100,000 o How many like to read poetry? 10,000 Much more likely to be a truck driver! All about base rates o 40 science majors, what’s the chance that Sarah is a science major? 40% Football Player/Nurse Problem & Engineer and Lawyer problem People ignore the base rates-don’t regard the probabilities of the categories when descriptive information is available Stereotypes-very inaccurate! Hospital Problem Insensitivity to sample size Makes mistakes when we give into stereotypes and ignore statistical information Law of large numbers: larger samples are more representative of the populations o Availability Heuristic: What you’ve experienced recently and personally (Also called the accessibility heuristic) Which causes more deaths in the US? Lung or breast cancer? You would think breast cancer…but it’s actually lung cancer Being constantly bombarded with information about breast cancer Higher incidence of breast cancer than lung cancer but fewer deaths actually happen Since we hear about breast cancer more, we think this happens more Accidental drowning v. accidental firearm discharge? Accidental drowning! We make decisions on things in which the ease with which instances come to mind-how available it is to you in your mind At Auburn, more education or business majors? o Think of the people you associate with, and for decisions through that Looks at frequency-if it comes to mind more easily, it must happen more frequently Real world example: Doctors under-prescribe opioids; thinking that overdosing is more common then it actually is Parents concerns: kidnapping, school shooters, drugs, terrorist Real causes of harm or death: car accidents, homicide, abuse, suicide, drowning Again, looking at base rates Biases due to World Knowledge Based on your perspective about what you know about the world o More tractors in Ireland or US? Actually Ireland! o More doctors in Canada or Cuba? Actually Cuba! Biases due to Familiarity Judging events as more frequent or important due to how familiar they are to us Famous Names Experiment o 19 female names-famous names o 20 male names-not famous o Recalled more female name than males (since the females were more familiar) and also judged the female names to be more frequent Biases due to Salience (the importance) or Vividness All due to media coverage (plane v. car crash) o Pictures and videos shown of plane crashes are thought to be more frequent because we see more of this Biases due to Recency The more recent something occurs, the more readily accessible it is in our minds Physicians are likely to diagnose someone else with a recent diagnosis they have already attended to Dual Processing Theory: Use both of these to process information Sunk Cost Fallacy: Decision based on what you previously invested in the situation I paid $100, this money will go to waste if I don’t go to the concert-this is a fallacy because this money has already gone to waste, so why make yourself miserable? Monty Hall Dilemma: We think events are independent when they’re actually not Often presented as a game show-2 goats, 1 car o Stay or switch? We think the odds are still the same, but they actually change! Many fallacies due to a misunderstanding of statistics Law of small numbers does not equal the law of large numbers We don’t understand base rates We use additional, descriptive information to make our decisions Representativeness heuristic-due to the misunderstanding of base rates We don’t understand when events are independent and when they aren’t We don’t have a sense of true randomness
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