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This 12 page Class Notes was uploaded by aiy0001 on Sunday August 21, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 3100 at Auburn University taught by Dr. Cecilia Champion in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 4 views. For similar materials see Management in Economics at Auburn University.
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Date Created: 08/21/16
Management Final Exam Chapter 12: Motivation Motivation: The forces (either internal or external) that arouses enthusiasm and persistence in a person to pursue a certain course of action What prompts people to initiate action? Where do people decide to put forth effort? How long do people persist in their effort? Types of Rewards Intrinsic: Comes from within a person; doing something because you love it (hobbies) o Autonomy Fed Ex days 20% time-Google Half of their products are birthed during this time Rowe-Show up when they want to (just have to get the work done) o Mastery o Purpose Extrinsic: Given by another person (money, prizes, recognition) Model of Motivation 1. Need: Food, shelter, friendship (belongingness-varies in introverts (but still there) and extroverts), recognition, achievement 2. 2. Behavior: Initiating actions to fulfill those needs 3. Rewards: Satisfying our needs (feedback: reward informs the person if the behavior was appropriate and should be used again) Theories Content Theories o Defining what our needs are and how we might use those in the work environment o Achieving employees needs but also the needs of the organization o Daniel Pink Ted Talk Mismatch between what science knows and what business does Emphasizing more intrinsic motivations rather than extrinsic o Hierarchy of Needs-Maslow; once you’ve got the step met, you move onto the next step (this is what motivates people) Physiological needs (basic) Salary, heat, air, food, shelter Safety needs Pollution, violence, safe work, job security Belonging needs Work groups, clients, co-workers, family, friends Esteem needs-Am I valued? Do I get recognition and praise? Approval of family and friends, high status and increased responsibilities Self-actualization needs Opportunities for development, growth, creativity, education, religion Once a need is satisfied, it is no longer a motivator unless there is a threat that will be taken away As a manager, you are concerned with where people currently are and where they are aspiring to be o ERG Theory-Alderfer Existence needs Need for well being Relatedness needs Need for satisfactory relationships with others Growth needs Can activate different levels of needs at the same time, unlike Maslow’s theory Can move to the next step even if the lower level is not satisfied yet Frustration Regression Principle: If you are blocked from achieving the next level need, you can go back and focus on a lower level need o Herzberg Two Factor Theory: Focusing on the work environment Hygiene Factors: Factors surrounding the job: Pay, working conditions, interpersonal relationships Not a source of satisfaction but instead, dissatisfaction and leads to lower productivity True Motivators: Factors related to the job: Recognition, achievement, growth These real motivators lead to satisfaction Criticism: Job satisfaction and motivation are not considered to be the same thing To increase motivation, we need to focus on the job design o Acquired Needs Theory-All learned (parents and the values they teach us) Need for Achievement: Desire to accomplish difficult tasks and to get better and better at what you do Can be low or high Looking for the challenge and to win it (realistic but not easy) *achievable Need for Affiliation: Avoiding conflicts, having personal relationships, being nurturing Need for Power: Desire to influence and control others Usually think of this as negative Having a mission and being able to display this based on the position you’re in Entrepreneurs have high need for achievement High level managers have a high level for need for power People who are successful in jobs requiring people skills and coordination have a high need for affiliation Process Theories o Decision making process-how people select actions to meet their needs o Equity Theory *Social comparisons-comparing ourselves to others My outcomes/ my inputs o Affects our efforts in what we put into our jobs o If our outcomes and inputs match others inputs and outcomes, this equals equity o If they do not match, they are imbalanced and thus, results in inequity (either under or over rewarded) Ways to Restore Equity Change Work Effort: A person increases or decreases their inputs (work ethic) Change Outcomes: Attempts to change any outcomes o Reporting to a manager about issues o Jack Welch-GE Distort Perceptions: May distort own inputs or perceived inputs or outputs of the other person Leave Job This theory underscores the importance of perceived equity among employees Making sure that employees rewards match their input o Expectancy Theory The decision process: Am I going to put forth effort? Where and when am I going to put in the effort? Whether you believe you can perform a task or not determines whether you’ll put forth the effort Expectancy (probability that effort will lead to desired performance-do you believe that you have the ability to be successful if you put forth the effort) X Instrumentality (probability that performance will produce desired outcome-trustworthy in delivering the rewards) X Valence (value of outcome-do you care about the reward? Pay, recognition-as a manager, figuring out what the employee values)=Motivation All of these components have to be in place for someone to have high motivation (will be more likely to take action) If ANY one of these is low, this will result in low motivation 0-1.0 o Goal Setting Theory: Increase motivation by setting goals Goal specificity: This is how you define success; when you’ve met it, you know you’ve been successful Goal difficulty: Challenging yet attainable (knowing that something is at least achievable) Goal acceptance: Being committed to a goal whether it is set by you or someone else Feedback: Checking progress and making corrections if needed Benefits-How does it improve motivation? Goals keep you on track Orders your priorities Tells you when you’ve been successful o External measure of success o You’ve actually defined what it means to meet your best Reinforcement Theories-External o How people learn desired behaviors o Help people to repeat behaviors or drop them o Positive Reinforcement o Avoidance Learning-Negative Reinforcement Escape or avoidance Ex. Putting your seatbelt on to get rid of the seatbelt sound Nagging o Punishment-decreases behavior o Extinction: withholding reinforcers in order to decrease behaviors Types of Job Design: Applies motivational theories in structuring work tasks in order to increase productivity and job satisfaction Job Simplification o Focuses on task efficiency by reducing the number of tasks any individual does o Tasks are simple, repetitive, and standardized o Does not motivate, results in routine and boring jobs- resulted in high turnovers! Wages won’t be motivating o Moved away from this concept in today’s manufacturing Job Rotation-What people do today! o Jobs are simple, but employees rotate from one job to another-eliminates being boring (or rather taking a break from it) Employees have greater complexity as a result of the increased task variety Break a simple task down and rotate it around people Job Enlargement o A series of tasks are combined into one broader job- enlarge it so someone is responsible for a whole component o Provides task variety and more challenge for employees Job Enrichment o Incorporates higher level motivators by including job responsibility, recognition, and opportunities for development o Giving employees some sense of accountability Job Characteristics Model-Hackman & Oldham What to think about when designing jobs o Core Dimensions Skill variety: What skills do they have, the greater the skill variety, the greater the meaningfulness is, one little component compared to the whole project Task identity: Someone did the whole thing, they finished out the final product Task significance: How important is the job to the overall scheme of things --All of these increase the experienced meaningfulness of the work Autonomy: Can you choose how you want to carry out the project in terms of organization and decision- making? Leads to increased responsibility for outcomes of the work If you’re the one leading the project, you’re going to feel much more accountable for how it turns out! Feedback: How much feedback does your work have on well you have done? Increased knowledge of the actual results of the work activities Needs for improving or recognition when they have done well o Critical Psychological StatesOutcomes Experienced meaningfulness of the work Experienced responsibility for outcomes of the work Knowledge of the actual results of work activities o Personal and Work Outcomes High internal work motivation High quality work performance High satisfaction with work Low absenteeism and turnovers o Employee Growth-Need Strength People differ! May look for meaningfulness outside of job and may not look for it in their job Power distance: Acceptance of authority Varies in different cultures o Latin cultures-high power distance: managers should have the power of authority Empowering Employees to Meet Higher Needs-Pushing Authority Down Important for organizations in turbulent, fast changing environments 4 Elements of Empowerment o Provide information about company performance Facebook: Open information company Ex. Budgets o Assist employees to acquire knowledge and skills to contribute to organizational goals If employees don’t understand the information you provide them, teach them o Give employees the power to make substantive decisions (meaningful) o Reward employees based on performance o Ex. Chip Conley: Joie De Vivre Hospitality Service retreats-essential for people who didn’t have a voice Creating a customer experience that will bring people back to the organization Employee Engagement Model Meaningfulness: Understanding your purpose and role in the organization for providing the product or service; knowing that you’re providing value Connectedness: Sense of belongingness; happy with co-workers and boss o Over 90% say connectedness with boss is important o Over 70% say connectedness with co-workers is important Learning and Growth All leads to engagement o Leads to high performance Increased employee performance Less turnover Higher profits Greater employee and customer loyalty Going back to Google’s ‘8 Roles of a Good Manager’ Chapter 13: Communication Basic Model of Communication -Sharing and exchanging information; incorporating a chance for feedback (making sure the message was heard correctly) SenderChannel (what’s your form of communication-texting, email, phone call; you choose this)Compose the message (verbal and non- verbal symbols)ChannelReceiver ^All have a potential error for misunderstanding! Tone of voice, events and routines change, bright people can question everything (often challenge you) -Experience of the sender AND the receiver, why many misunderstandings can arise and why feedback is so important Verbal Communication: Language (both oral and written) is used to convey meaning Oral communication: Flexible and difficult to ignore (face to face) o Command attention immediately o No record of it unless it’s recorded-why misunderstandings can occur Written communication: Easier to ignore and not as flexible o More precise and less chance of misinterpretation Nonverbal Communication Richest channel of communication-so many cues and different messages Unconscious-not aware that we are expressing ourselves through our facial expressions, body language, posture, eye contact, high pitch, tone, gesture o All contribute to the interpretation of the message Put more weight on non-verbal cues over verbal ones o Mind will discount what the person is saying and read their non-verbal cues instead Ted Talk: Your Body Language Shapes Who You Are o WE are also influenced by our non-verbal’s, not just others o Do our bodies change our minds? Role changes o High power pose-high level of gambling, high level of testosterone, and low level of cortisol o Real world: social threat situations (job interviews) Communications Channel Choose the channel that is best matched for the communication that you need to send-the use of multiple channels is something to be considered as well Media differs in richness o Personal/impersonal nature (personal is very rich) o Availability of multiple cues (face to face has more cues)- sensing the other persons cues too o Ability for rapid, two-way feedback Formal reports-good for when you want a written record (lowest channel richness), then memos and letters, email, telephone, and face to face has the richest channel Non-routine messages NEED rich media o Routine messages don’t need rich media, in fact it’s much more efficient Directions of Communication Upward Communication o Employees-Progress reports, problems, suggestions for improvement o Interprets Downward Communication o Implementation of goals o Influences o Performance feedback o Job instructions o Procedures and practices Horizontal Communication o Coordination and collaboration o Problem solving and change initiatives Want all of these in both formal and informal formats Formal Communication Channels Reflects the organizational structure Should fit the organization’s communication needs o Fits what you’re trying to accomplish in the organization Informal Communication Channels Primary way that work gets accomplished in organizations (across, down, and up) Both work and non-related work Develops interpersonal activities of members-gets to meet people from all over o Huge productivity lift Problems: Different sub groups within the same department, no direct contacts Communication Networks Boundary Spanners: Lots of power and influence on what gets communicated because they are the only communicator between departments-could be fatal if they were to drop out, decides what information gets passed on between departments Managers need to be aware of informal communication networks and be sure they are in sync with company goals Communication Barriers Organizational Level o Individuals: Management by walking around; building that trust dynamic o Differences between departments Cultural Level o Language barriers-strong diversity o High or low context cultures Low: Rely on the words, say what we mean, very good at communicating through words United States (more on the positive side), Germany, Canada High: The words aren’t as much part of the communication, the words aren’t necessarily what they mean, look at the nonverbal cues, status, relationships, and history Asian cultures, Arab cultures, Mexico, France (less so) o Degree of difference in cultural characteristics Communication Skills About 75% of communication is actually listening! o Grasping for facts and feelings to interpret the meaning of a message o Rather than listening, we instead focus on what we’re going to say next Rehearse, interrupting, finish what the other person is saying o Good listening focuses on empathizing with the other person and not thinking so much about yourself o Keys to Effective Listening Listen Actively: maintain eye contact, nodding, encouraging statements; provides a reinforcement for the person to keep interacting with you Resist Distractions: getting rid of your phone when at dinner Find Areas of Interest: not all speakers are effective messengers; look for knowledge to be gained Ask Questions and Reflect Message: Reinforcing and encouraging-you interpreted their message in the way they intended to say it as well as their feelings Hold your Fire: Avoid jumping to conclusions, wait until the message is complete before you respond- the hardest to do! Supportive Communication for Conflict Situations Personal attacks never go far-instead, focus on the specific behavior and how to work to improve it o Focus on the actions and not the person o Get your emotions under control o Find a private place o Be direct and descriptive Characteristics of Supportive Communication o Focus on the problem and not the person o Verbal and nonverbal communication must match o Communication is descriptive rather than evaluative o Both parties should have the opportunity to speak- Listening actively o Own your viewpoint-Use “I” and “me” rather than “we” and “us” Makes the other person feel comfortable that other people may be talking about them Chapter 14: Teams Team: Two or more people who interact and coordinate their work toward a goal Have a sense of a shared mission and collective responsibility Making Teams Effective: Successful teams don’t just happen! Putting your own goals and priorities aside for the team’s success Team size and role is important (5 members, larger than 5 have more disagreements as well as forming subgroups) o Higher tendency of social loafing Team Characteristics Socioemotional Role: Person who draws people in, the mediator, making sure people feel included o However, don’t get a whole lot done Task Specialist Role: Person who steps up and leads; focus on the task and what needs to be done o However, have no real sense of attachment Need to have both represented in the team! Both=leadership 5 Stages of Team Development 1. Forming a. Getting to know each other b. Leaders need to foster social time and breaking the ice 2. Storming a. Once you get to know each other, you need to figure out who’s going to do what i. Team members may have different goals, a time of conflict b. Leader needs to encourage members to participate 3. Norming a. Figuring out goals and behavioral norms (the way we get things done) b. Where the socioemotional and task roles come about c. Leader just needs to get out of the way and let the members go about their business! 4. Performing a. Team is in the zone-the production stage 5. Adjourning a. Helping to bring closure that the task is complete Conflict Management Within Teams Conflicts around interpersonal relationships are dysfunctional and hinders productivity//Results should be based on objective standards Moderate levels of conflict are actually functional! o Avoiding groupthink-helps to challenge assumptions and to bring in different viewpoints Techniques to Manage Conflict o Establish superordinate (common) goals Reminding team members of their goal and what the purpose is o Develop many alternatives-leads to more information
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