UGA Psychology 1101- Week One
UGA Psychology 1101- Week One Psyc 1101
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Michelle H. on Sunday August 21, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psyc 1101 at University of Georgia taught by Kara A. Dyckman in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 27 views. For similar materials see Elementary Psycology in Psychology at University of Georgia.
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Date Created: 08/21/16
Intro Psychology Notes: Week One What is Psychology? Psychology is the scientific study of behavior and mental processes Methods of study ● Scientific ○ Answering questions based on meticulous and methodical observations & data analysis ● Behavior ○ Observable activities ● Mental processes ○ Thoughts and emotions Goals of Psychology ● Describe ○ Reporting on what is being observed in terms of behavior ● Explanation ○ To organize and understand why people are behaving in a certain way. ● Predict ○ To determine how a person will act in a certain situation or when the behavior will occur ● Control ○ Modifying/changing the behavior. Roots of Psychology Philosophy Plato: Truth and knowledge existed in the soul before birth. (Nature) Aristotle: We know reality through perceptions and we learn through experiences. Known as Empiricism. (Nurture) Rene Descartes: The mind and body interact as two separate entities. Known as Dualism. Gustav Fechner: Pioneered the study of the physical ability to sense stimuli. Known as Psycological Pscology ● Wilhelm Wundt (18321920) ○ Considered to be the founder of psychology ○ Created the first psychology research laboratory ■ University of Leipzig, Germany (1879) ○ Presented subjects with stimuli and asked for their reactions ■ Introspection Science and Psychology ● Psychology is driven by critical thinking ○ Curiosity ■ Ask important questions to find new answers ○ Skepticism ■ Challenge previously held beliefs and determine if it is true ○ Humility ■ Ability to accept that your ideas may be wrong Pseudoscience ● Numerology ○ In the Chilean Miner incident, the number 33 could be found in various details ■ People concluded that this must be a “sign" ■ However, this can be explained by coincidence. ● Astrology ○ Horoscopes use your “star sign” to give predictions about your future ■ Descriptions are purposely vague ■ Easy to make to apply to any event The Scientific Method: “Real Science" ● Form hypothesis ○ Make a prediction ● Complete experiment ○ Test to see if hypothesis is accurate ● Analyze data ○ Review your data to determine whether or not hypothesis is correct ● Report results ○ Sharing findings of experiment with others Variable: Anything that can be changed ● Example: Testing a drug ○ One group receives drug and the other takes placebo ■ Dichotomous Variable ○ Participants receive varied doses of the drug ■ Continuous variable Population: All members of the group which you are interested in learning about. ● Example: How college students react to stress ○ Population=all college students ○ However, it is often impossible to test the entire population Sample: A group selected from the population that the experiment is performed upon ● The group must be an accurate reflection of the entire population ○ Members must be chosen at random ○ Representative ■ All possible subjects must have an equal chance of being selected Informed Consent: All members participating in the study must be given a full description of the study and give their consent to participate ● Participants must know they are being studied ● Participants must have full knowledge of what is expected of them ● Participants must be allowed to leave the study at any time Debriefing: Sharing the information gathered with the participants after the study has concluded ● Some specific aspects may not be known at the time to prevent bias Research Methods Descriptive Methods: Describing behavior that is observed. ● Naturalistic observations ○ Observing what is already occurring without manipulating any events ○ Researchers do not interfere in events or introduce any variables ■ Eg. Observing animals in the wild. ● Laboratory Observation ○ Observing participants in a controlled environment ○ Participants may not be aware that study is occurring but researchers can manipulate certain variables ■ Eg. What happens when something is removed ● Case Study ○ A naturalistic observation that is centered around the life of a certain individual, often one with a certain abnormality ■ Eg. Phones Gage Brain impaled through railroad spike, survived but personality changed. ■ Helped scientists to understand what certain areas of the brain were used for. ● Survey ○ Descriptive study in which participants are asked questions to gather information ○ Scientists only gather information from participants Although these methods can be used to determine a relationship between two variables, they cannot define the cause for behavior Correlation Analysis: A method of examining relationships among variables. ● Eg. Correlating a subject’s score on a narcissism test to the number of selfies taken ● Only can be used to descriptive ○ Eg. Low self esteem could cause depression but it is also possible that depression causes low selfesteem ● Correlations are graphed using a scatter plot. Correlation does not prove causation! Psychological Research: A research method that can prove causation by manipulating a variable of interest. ● Requires at least two groups: ○ Experimental group ■ Group in which the variable is applied to ○ Control group ■ Group that completes a task normally. ● Independent variable: Variable that is changed by researchers ○ Eg. Amount of sleep ● Dependent variable: What is measured ○ Eg. Exam score ● Random Assignment: Assigning participants to either experimental or control groups at random ○ This can help for other variables present in the participants such as intelligence level and other environmental levels. Experimental method ● Placebo: A substance given to the percipients that has no effect, such as a sugar pill. This is mostly used in pharmaceutical studies. ○ However, sometimes the placebo has an effect because the participants b fake treatment is working. This is known as the placebo effect. ● Double Blind study: Type of study in which neither the researchers nor the participants know the type of treatment the subject is receiving ○ This removes experimenter bias, or when the researcher’s expectations has an unconscious effect on the participants. Ethics in Psychology Research ● Institutional review board ○ Professional group that reviews the the safety and merits of the experiments. ○ Discovered potential issues that may arise during the experimentation process. ○ Done to protect all subjects involved in the study Common Ethical Guidelines ● Rights and wellbeing of participants should be weighted against the value of the survey ○ How valuable is the information being gathered and how does it compare to the impact it may have on the participant? ● Informed consent ○ Participants must understand what tasks they are explained to complete and agree to participate ● Deception must be justified ○ All information withheld from the participants must be withheld for a good reason ● Participants may withdraw at any time ○ No penalty for withdrawing from study. ● Participants protected from risks ● Investigator must debrief participants ○ Participants can inquire about the study findings after the research has concluded ● Data must remain confidential ○ Eg. Participants are assigned numbers instead of using their names, anonymous surveys Animal Research ● Attempts to answer questions not obtainable with human research ● Avoid exposing animals to unnecessary pain and suffering ○ Value of research vs. pain level ● Animals are used in approx. 7% of psychological studies
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