Japanese 151 Ch. 1-5 Notes
Japanese 151 Ch. 1-5 Notes japanese 251
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This 17 page Class Notes was uploaded by Olivia Lichterman on Sunday August 21, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to japanese 251 at University of Tennessee - Knoxville taught by Mahagi N Lacure (P) in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 16 views. For similar materials see Intermediate Japanese in Foreign Language at University of Tennessee - Knoxville.
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Date Created: 08/21/16
日本語 151/152 REVIEW CHAPTERS 1-5 CHAPTER 1 1 Xは Y です 〜です。 It is… 十二時半です。 (It) is half 学生です。 (I) am a student. Sentences without subjects are very common in Japan. Japanese speakers actually tend to omit subjects whenever they think it is clear to the listener what or who they are referring to. __________ は日本語です________ is the Japanese language. _____________ represents the topic. 先行は日本語です。 (My) major is the Japanese language. Wa is a member of the class of words called, “particles.” Particles attach themselves to phrases and indicate how the phrases relate the the rest of the sentence. In Japanese there is no item that relates to “a,” nor is ther any item that corresponds to the plural “-s” at the end of the noun. In Japanese nouns can be plural or singular when not accompanied by an y background information. 2 QUESTION SENTENCES Just add ka to the end of the sentence. 日本人です。- (I am) Japanese. 日本人ですか。- (Are you) Japanese? Question sentences may also contain “question words” like nan(what). There is nanji(what time), nansai(how old), and nannensee(what year in school). 3 NOUN の NOUN No is a particle that connects two nouns. No is very versatile. It acts like the possessive (x’s) in English. たけしさんのでんわばんごう。 Takeshi’s phone number. 大学の先生。 a college professor 日本の大学 a college in Japan The main idea always comes at the end, with any further description placed before it. 2 Noun1 の noun2 ⬆▯ ⬆▯ Main idea Further restriction CHAPTER 2 1 これ それ あれ どれ Kore refers to a thing that is close to you. Sore is something that is close to the person you are talking to. Are refers to a thing that is neither close to the speaker nor the listener. あれは私のペンです。 それは私のペンです。 これは私のペンです。 There is also an expression dore for “which.” どれですか。 Which on is it (that you are talking about)? Question words like dore and nani cannot be followed by the paticle wa. Instead, you must use the particle ga. どれがあなたのペンですか。 Which one is your pen? 3 2 この その あの どの Kono, sono, and ano can be used together with a noun to be more specific. (Note that the re series must always be used alone, while the no series must always be used with a noun.) このとけいはいくらですか。 How much is this watch? そのとけいは三千円です。 That watch is 3,000 yen. あのとけいは三千五百円です。That watch over there is 3,500 yen. Since dono is a question word, just like dore, we cannot use the particle wa. We must use ga. 3 ここ そこ あそこ どこ koko is here, near me. Soko is there, near you. Asoko is over there. Doko is where. トイレはどこですか。 Where is the toilet? あそこです。 Right over there. 4 だれの NOUN The question word for “who” is dare, and for “whose,” we simply add the particle no. これはだれのカバンですか。 Whose bag is this? それはスーさんのかばんです。 That is Sue’s bag. 4 5 NOUN も Item A is this, and item B is this, too.” たけしさんは日本人です。 Takeshi is Japanese みちこさんも日本人です。 Michiko is Japanese too. Mo is a particle that indicates that that item, too, has the give property. Mo must directly follow Michiko-san. Mo cannot be used after nihonjin, nor can it be used against after a change in nationality. 6 NOUN じゃないです To negate a statement of the form X wa Y desu, where Y is a noun, you replace desu with janai desu. 山田さんは学生じゃないです。 Mr. Yamada is not a student. 7 〜ね・〜よ Statements often end with the tags ~ne/~yo. If the speaker is seeking seeking the listener’s confirmation or agreement to what has been said, then ~ne (“right?”) could be added リーさんの先行は文学ですね。Mr. Lee, your major is literature, right? Another particle ~yo (“I tell you”), is added to a statement if the speaker wants to assure the listener of what has been said. スミスさんはイギリス人ですよ。 Mr. Smith is British. 5 CHAPTER 3 1 VERB CONJUGATION In this lesson there are three forms. 1.) “dictionary forms” 2.) present tense affirmative forms 3.) the present tense negative forms. ru-verb u-verb Verb bases tabe iku Dictionary forms 食べる(to eat) 行く(to go) Present, affirmative食べます 行きます Present, negative 食べません 行きません Stems 食べ 行き 食べる is a ru-verb. 行く is a u -verb. For the two long forms we learn in this lesson, you simply add the suffixes masu and masen, instead of ru, to the bases. For u-verbs you drop the ending u and add imasu and imasen. 6 There are also irregular verbs Irregular verbs Dictionary forms する(to do) くる(to come) Present, affirmatiします きます Present, negativeしません きません Stems し き Some u-verbs will end with ru, so it’s important to memorize the verb groups. 見る (= a ru-verb帰る (= a u-verb) Verb bases mi kaer Long forms 見ます・見ません 帰ります・帰りません Stems 見 帰り If you see the vowels a, u, or o right before the final ru, you can be absolutely sure that they are u-verbs. If you see the vowels I and e before the final ru, in most cases, the verbs are ru-verbs. Kaeru is one that is exceptional. 7 2 VERB TYPES AND THE “PRESENT TENSE” Verbs that describe basic human actions when used in “present tense” it either means 1.) that the person regularly engages in these activities, or 2.) that a person will, or is planning to, perform these activities in the future. 私はよくテレビを見ます。 I often watch TV. 私はあした京都に行きます。 I will go to Kyoto tomorrow. 3 PARTICLES Particles indicate the relations that the nouns bear to the verbs. を The particles を indicates “direct objects,” the kind of things that are directly involved in or affected by the event. で The particle で indicates where the event described took place. に The particle に has manu meanings, but here we will learns two: 1.) the goal toward which things move 2.) the time at which an event takes place. Approximate time references can be made by substituting ごろ or ご ろに. へ The particle , too, indicates the goal of movement. Pronounced “e.” Note that へ may only replace に in the goal of movement. 8 4 TIME REFERENCE に is used for 1.) days of the week 2.) numerical time expressions. You do not need to use it with 1.) time expressions defined relati ve to the present movement, such as “today,” and “tomorrow,” 2.) expressions describing regular intervals, such as “everyday,” and 3.) the word for “when.” You do not normally use に with 1.) the parts of the day, 2.) the word for “weekend.” 5 ~ませんか You can use 〜ませんか (= the present tense negative verb, plus the question particle) to extend an invitation. 6 WORD ORDER Sentence order in Japanese is for the most part free. 7 FREQUENCY ADVERBS You can add frequency adverbs to describe how much something is done. 8 THE TOPIC PARTICLE は The particle は represents the topic of one’s utterance. It puts forward the item that you want to talk about and comment on. The topic phrase however need not be the subject of the sentence. We see three sentences in the dialogue of this lesson where nonsubject phrases are made with the help of the particle は. 9 CHAPTER ４ 1 X が あります・います X があります means there is/are X (nonliving thing).” The particle が introduces, or presents, the item X. You can use when you want to say that there is something at a certain location. あそこにマクドナルドがあります。 There’s a McDonald’s over there. It calls for the particle に, rather than で, for place description. Two, the place description usually comes at the beginning of the sentence. Three, the thing description is usually followed by the particle が, rather than は. You can also use it to say that you have or own something. テレビがあります。 I don’t have a TV. 時間がありますか。 Do you have time? We can also use it when we want to say that an event will take place. 火曜日にテストがあります。 There will be an exam on Tuesday. Whenever you want to present a person or some other sentient being rather than a thing, you need to use the verb います。 You can also use it to say that you have friends, siblings, and so forth. 10 日本人おともだちがいます。 I have a Japanese friend. 2 DESCRIBING WHERE THINGS ARE This lesson teaches us to describe one thing in relation to another. . （マクドナルドは）あのデパートの前です。 (McDonald’s is)in front of the department store. X は Y と Z のあいだです。 X is between Y and Z. ぎんこうはとしょかんのとなりです。 The bank is next to the library. かさはデーブルのしたです。 The umbrella is under the table. レストランはデパートとびょういんのあいだです。The restaurant is between the department store and the hospital. One can use any of the above location words together with a verb to describe and event that occur in the place. To use these phrases with verbs such as 食べる and まつ, one will need to particle で. 私はモスバーガーのまえでメアリーさんをまちました。 I waited for Mary in front of the Mos Burger place. 11 3 PAST TENSE OF です The past tense of です is でした. The past tense negative is じゃなかっ たです. 4 PAST TENSE OF VERBS The past tense of 〜ます is 〜ました, while the past tense negative is 〜ませんでした。 5 も You can also use も when two or more people perform the same activity. 私はきのう京都に行きました。 I went to Kyoto yesterday. たかしさんもきのう京都に行きました。 Takashi went to Kyoto yesterday, too. Or when someone buys, sees, or eats, two or more things. メアリさんはくつを買いました。 Mary bought shoes. メアリさんはかばんも買いました。 Mary bought a bag, too. In both cases, も directly marks an item on the list of things or people that have something in common. Observe that も replaces the particles は, が, を in these sentences. You can also use も when you go to two places, do something on two different occasions, and so forth. 私はせんしゅう京都に行きました。 I went to Kyoto last week. 12 大阪にも行きました。 I went to Osaka too. We put も after particle に in these sentences. More generally, particles other than は, が, and を are used together with , rather than being replaced by it. 6 一時間 The duration of an activity is expressed with a bare noun, like 一時 間. Such a noun stands alone (that is, not followed by any particle). メアリーさんはそこでたけしさんを一時間待ちました。 Mary waited for Takeshi there for an hour. Add han to ichijikan to make it an hour and a half. 7 たくさん Add quantity words like たくさん to the direct object of a sentence, you can either place it before the noun or after the particle を. 8 〜と The particle と has two functions. One is to connect two nouns A and B. The other meaning of と is “together with”; it describes with whom you do something. 13 CHAPTER 5 1 ADJECTIVES There are two types of adjectives. One is called “い-adjectives,” and the other type “な-adjectives.” い and な are their last syllable when they modify nouns. い-adjectives おもしろいえいが an interesting movie きのう、おもしろいえいがを見ました。 I saw an interesting movie yesterday. な-adjectives きれいなしゃしん a beautiful picture 京都できれいなしゃしんをとりました。I took a beautiful picture in Kyoto. Adjectives conjugate for tense and polarity and so forth just like verbs. 14 い-adjectives affirmative negative Present さむいです さむくないです。 Past さむかったです さむくなかったです Only one irregular adjective. いい ｉs changed to よ in all forms except for the dictionary form and the long present affirmative form. な-adjectives this conjugation pattern is exactly the same as the pattern of です which follows a noun. Affirmative negative Present 元気です 元気じゃないです。 Past 元気でした 元気じゃなかったです。 The final syllable na is dropped in these long forms. If you want to specify adjectives, you can use degree adverbs like sugoku, totemo, and chotto. 沖縄のうみはとてもきれいでした。 The sea was very beautiful in Okinawa. この部屋はちょっとあついです。 This room is a little hot. 15 2 好き ( )きらい な ( ) These adjectives are relational. They require something to like or dislike. X は Y が 好き・きらいです。 X likes/dislikes Y. ロバートさんは日本語のクラスが好きです。 Robert likes his Japanese classes. Three things of note. 1.) if you really like or dislike something, you can use daisuki or daikirai, 2.) to say that you neither like nor dislike something you can say 好きでもきらいでもです。 3.) you can use 好き な and きらいな as modifiers of nouns. これは私の好きな本です。 This is my favorite book. 3 〜ましょう・〜ましょうか if you replace ます with ましょう or ましょうか you get the Japanese expression for “lets…,” which you can suggest doing something. いっしょにとしょかんでべんきょうしましょう。 Let’s study in the library together. 4 COUNTING Firstly, we use different number words for different kinds of items. Secondly, number words often come after, rather than before, the items being counted. In this lesson, we learn まい。 リーさんはきってをさんまい買いました。 Lee bought three stamps. 16 17
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