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Anatomy and Physiology II Notes on Blood

by: Matthew Vickers

Anatomy and Physiology II Notes on Blood BIOL 2510 - 001

Marketplace > Auburn University > Anatomy > BIOL 2510 - 001 > Anatomy and Physiology II Notes on Blood
Matthew Vickers
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About this Document

This is the notes we covered during the first lecture on blood.
Human Anatomy & Physiology II
Dr. Shobnom Ferdous
Class Notes
Anatomy & Physiology II, Blood




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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Matthew Vickers on Sunday August 21, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 2510 - 001 at Auburn University taught by Dr. Shobnom Ferdous in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 22 views. For similar materials see Human Anatomy & Physiology II in Anatomy at Auburn University.

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Date Created: 08/21/16
Blood­ Internal Transport System 17.1 Functions of Blood • Blood is the life­sustaining transport vehicle of the cardiovascular system • Cardio=heart • Vascular=blood vessels • A at the beginning of a word means without • Vaso=related to blood vessels • Vasoconstriction • Vasodilation • Functions include • Transport • Regulation • Protection Transport • Transport functions include: • Delivering O  2nd nutrients to body cells • Transporting metabolic wastes to lungs and kidneys for elimination • Transporting hormones from endocrine organs to target organs Regulation • Regulation functions include: • Maintaining body temperature by absorbing and distributing heat • Maintaining normal pH using buffers; alkaline reserve of bicarbonate ions • Maintaining adequate fluid volume in circulatory system Protection • Protection functions include: • Preventing blood loss • Plasma proteins and platelets in blood initiate clot formation • Preventing infection  • Agents of immunity are carried in blood • Antibodies • Complement proteins • White blood cells General Characteristics • Connective Tissue • Travels through the body within blood vessels • Maintaining homeostasis • Blood makes up 8% of our body weight and our bodies have ~ 5L blood • Gas exchange only occurs at the capillary network Composition of Blood • Blood is the only fluid tissue in body • Type of connective tissue • Matrix is nonliving fluid called plasma • Cells are living blood cells called formed elements  • Cells are suspended in plasma • Formed elements • Erythrocytes (red blood cells, or RBCs)  • Leukocytes (white blood cells, or WBCs)      Platelets • Plasma (55% of total blood volume) • Liquid portion of blood (non­living) • 90% water  • Solutes  Nutrients, gases, hormones, waste products, proteins, ions   Formed elements ­living blood cells & platelets • Buffy coat ­ contains leukocytes (white blood cells) & platelets (thrombocytes; cell fragments involved in clotting) • Erythrocytes ­ red blood cells (RBC) • Hematocrit ­ % of total blood volume made up of erythrocytes • Higher hematocrit = thicker blood 17.3 Erythrocytes Red blood cells • Function: transport O  to2tissue from lungs and CO  released2by tissues back to lungs • Shape: biconcave discs with edges thicker than middle • Composition: Anucleate, lack cellular organelles • Main cellular component: protein called hemoglobin, almost 97% Hemoglobin • Consists of: • Heme ­ iron­containing red pigment • Globin ­ protein made of 4 polypeptide chains      2 alpha subunits      2 beta subunits      Each subunit has a bound heme­ group containing an Fe atom      O 2binds to the Fe portion of the Heme ( how many O  molecules 2er Hb  molecule?) • 1 billion O 2molecules per RBC (how many Hb molecules per RBC?) Hematopoiesis • Hematopoiesis  (hemopoiesis)­ production of formed elements (RBCs, WBCs, platelets) • Starts with hematopoietic stem cell  • In newborns it takes place in: spleen, lymph nodes, and red bone marrow • In adults it takes place in red bone marrow, primarily in proximal epiphysis of humerus  and femur Erythropoiesis • Erythropoiesis ­ formation of red blood cells • Erythropoietin (EPO) ­ hormone produced by kidneys (some produced in liver too) to  stimulate erythropoiesis • Problems with EPO doping? – makes blood thicker­ clotting, stroke, heart failure 17 .4 Leukocytes White blood cells (leukocytes) Make up less than 1% of whole blood. Found mainly in lymphoid tissue & loose connective tissue 1. Make up the buffy coat 2. Contain nuclei and usual organelles 3. Mostly found in lymphoid tissue (spleen, lymph nodes, tonsils, etc.) 4. Leukopoiesis ­ production of WBCs 5. Function: • Protection from invading microorganisms, toxins, parasites and tumor cells • Remove dead cells and debris from the blood stream Never let monkeys eat bananas For real? • Neutrophils • Lymphocytes • Monocytes • Eosinophils • Basophils • mnemonic  goes from most abundant to least abundant Granulocytes: contain membrane­bound granules in cytoplasm, spherical, multi­lobed nuclei 1. Neutrophils–Most common, phagocytize bacteria and fungi 2. Eosinophils –  nucleus, bilobed, digest parasitic worms, role in allergy and asthma 3. Basophils – Least common, nucleus, granules contain histamine (cause inflammation,  vasodilation) Agranulocytes: lack visible granules, nuclei typically spherical or kidney shaped 4.  Lymphocytes – mostly in lymphoid tissue; important in cellular immunity • B lymphocytes (B cells) ­ when stimulated by bacteria or toxins differentiate into plasma cells that produce antibodies specific for the bacteria or toxins • T lymphocytes (T cells) ­ directly attacks virus­ infected cell or tumor cell 5.  Monocytes –kidney­shaped nucleus, enter tissue & differentiate into macrophages­ phagocytes Blood Types • RBC membranes have different antigens  • Antigens ­ any substance recognized as foreign that can generate an immune response • RBC antigens are referred to as agglutinogens because they promote agglutination • Agglutination ­ clumping together if transfused into person with different RBC type • Mismatched transfused blood is perceived as foreign and may be agglutinated and destroyed • Potentially fatal reaction • ABO blood types have different antigens • Rh blood types have different antigens ABO blood types a) Based on presence/absence of type A & type B antigens b) A and B on surface of RBCs c) Type A: A antigens, anti­B antibodies d) Type B: B antigens, anti­A antibodies e) Type AB: A & B antigens, no antibodies f) Type O: no antigens, anti­A & anti­B antibodies • Antibodies ­ proteins of immune system that bind to antigens • Universal donor: TYPE O • Universal recipient: TYPE AB • Blood may contain preformed anti­A or anti­B antibodies • Act against transfused RBCs with ABO antigens not present at the time     Rh blood types + a) Rh  = has D antigen ­ b) Rh = no D antigen c) People with Rh blood type will react with Rh  blood + • But usually not the first time, why? • Person’s ABO & Rh blood types reported together: AB , AB, O, O  ,etc.  ­ ­ + • Erythroblastosis fetalis­ condition in newborn where Rh­ mother’s immune system  attacks Rh+ baby’s RBCs Disorders • Anemia ­ blood has low capacity to carry O 2 - Low RBC count  - Low hemoglobin levels due to insufficient iron B­12 vitamin in diet - Abnormal hemoglobin • Polycythemia ­ excess of erythrocytes increase blood viscosity - Bone marrow cancer - High altitude - Blood doping • Leukemia ­ cancer involving white blood cells - Leukocytes proliferate uncontrollably - Anemia, bone pain, weight loss - Fatal if not treated with radiation/chemotherapy/stem cell transplant


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