Anatomy and Physiology II Notes on Blood
Anatomy and Physiology II Notes on Blood BIOL 2510 - 001
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Matthew Vickers on Sunday August 21, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 2510 - 001 at Auburn University taught by Dr. Shobnom Ferdous in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 22 views. For similar materials see Human Anatomy & Physiology II in Anatomy at Auburn University.
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Date Created: 08/21/16
Blood Internal Transport System 17.1 Functions of Blood • Blood is the lifesustaining transport vehicle of the cardiovascular system • Cardio=heart • Vascular=blood vessels • A at the beginning of a word means without • Vaso=related to blood vessels • Vasoconstriction • Vasodilation • Functions include • Transport • Regulation • Protection Transport • Transport functions include: • Delivering O 2nd nutrients to body cells • Transporting metabolic wastes to lungs and kidneys for elimination • Transporting hormones from endocrine organs to target organs Regulation • Regulation functions include: • Maintaining body temperature by absorbing and distributing heat • Maintaining normal pH using buffers; alkaline reserve of bicarbonate ions • Maintaining adequate fluid volume in circulatory system Protection • Protection functions include: • Preventing blood loss • Plasma proteins and platelets in blood initiate clot formation • Preventing infection • Agents of immunity are carried in blood • Antibodies • Complement proteins • White blood cells General Characteristics • Connective Tissue • Travels through the body within blood vessels • Maintaining homeostasis • Blood makes up 8% of our body weight and our bodies have ~ 5L blood • Gas exchange only occurs at the capillary network Composition of Blood • Blood is the only fluid tissue in body • Type of connective tissue • Matrix is nonliving fluid called plasma • Cells are living blood cells called formed elements • Cells are suspended in plasma • Formed elements • Erythrocytes (red blood cells, or RBCs) • Leukocytes (white blood cells, or WBCs) Platelets • Plasma (55% of total blood volume) • Liquid portion of blood (nonliving) • 90% water • Solutes Nutrients, gases, hormones, waste products, proteins, ions Formed elements living blood cells & platelets • Buffy coat contains leukocytes (white blood cells) & platelets (thrombocytes; cell fragments involved in clotting) • Erythrocytes red blood cells (RBC) • Hematocrit % of total blood volume made up of erythrocytes • Higher hematocrit = thicker blood 17.3 Erythrocytes Red blood cells • Function: transport O to2tissue from lungs and CO released2by tissues back to lungs • Shape: biconcave discs with edges thicker than middle • Composition: Anucleate, lack cellular organelles • Main cellular component: protein called hemoglobin, almost 97% Hemoglobin • Consists of: • Heme ironcontaining red pigment • Globin protein made of 4 polypeptide chains 2 alpha subunits 2 beta subunits Each subunit has a bound heme group containing an Fe atom O 2binds to the Fe portion of the Heme ( how many O molecules 2er Hb molecule?) • 1 billion O 2molecules per RBC (how many Hb molecules per RBC?) Hematopoiesis • Hematopoiesis (hemopoiesis) production of formed elements (RBCs, WBCs, platelets) • Starts with hematopoietic stem cell • In newborns it takes place in: spleen, lymph nodes, and red bone marrow • In adults it takes place in red bone marrow, primarily in proximal epiphysis of humerus and femur Erythropoiesis • Erythropoiesis formation of red blood cells • Erythropoietin (EPO) hormone produced by kidneys (some produced in liver too) to stimulate erythropoiesis • Problems with EPO doping? – makes blood thicker clotting, stroke, heart failure 17 .4 Leukocytes White blood cells (leukocytes) Make up less than 1% of whole blood. Found mainly in lymphoid tissue & loose connective tissue 1. Make up the buffy coat 2. Contain nuclei and usual organelles 3. Mostly found in lymphoid tissue (spleen, lymph nodes, tonsils, etc.) 4. Leukopoiesis production of WBCs 5. Function: • Protection from invading microorganisms, toxins, parasites and tumor cells • Remove dead cells and debris from the blood stream Never let monkeys eat bananas For real? • Neutrophils • Lymphocytes • Monocytes • Eosinophils • Basophils • mnemonic goes from most abundant to least abundant Granulocytes: contain membranebound granules in cytoplasm, spherical, multilobed nuclei 1. Neutrophils–Most common, phagocytize bacteria and fungi 2. Eosinophils – nucleus, bilobed, digest parasitic worms, role in allergy and asthma 3. Basophils – Least common, nucleus, granules contain histamine (cause inflammation, vasodilation) Agranulocytes: lack visible granules, nuclei typically spherical or kidney shaped 4. Lymphocytes – mostly in lymphoid tissue; important in cellular immunity • B lymphocytes (B cells) when stimulated by bacteria or toxins differentiate into plasma cells that produce antibodies specific for the bacteria or toxins • T lymphocytes (T cells) directly attacks virus infected cell or tumor cell 5. Monocytes –kidneyshaped nucleus, enter tissue & differentiate into macrophages phagocytes Blood Types • RBC membranes have different antigens • Antigens any substance recognized as foreign that can generate an immune response • RBC antigens are referred to as agglutinogens because they promote agglutination • Agglutination clumping together if transfused into person with different RBC type • Mismatched transfused blood is perceived as foreign and may be agglutinated and destroyed • Potentially fatal reaction • ABO blood types have different antigens • Rh blood types have different antigens ABO blood types a) Based on presence/absence of type A & type B antigens b) A and B on surface of RBCs c) Type A: A antigens, antiB antibodies d) Type B: B antigens, antiA antibodies e) Type AB: A & B antigens, no antibodies f) Type O: no antigens, antiA & antiB antibodies • Antibodies proteins of immune system that bind to antigens • Universal donor: TYPE O • Universal recipient: TYPE AB • Blood may contain preformed antiA or antiB antibodies • Act against transfused RBCs with ABO antigens not present at the time Rh blood types + a) Rh = has D antigen b) Rh = no D antigen c) People with Rh blood type will react with Rh blood + • But usually not the first time, why? • Person’s ABO & Rh blood types reported together: AB , AB, O, O ,etc. + • Erythroblastosis fetalis condition in newborn where Rh mother’s immune system attacks Rh+ baby’s RBCs Disorders • Anemia blood has low capacity to carry O 2 - Low RBC count - Low hemoglobin levels due to insufficient iron B12 vitamin in diet - Abnormal hemoglobin • Polycythemia excess of erythrocytes increase blood viscosity - Bone marrow cancer - High altitude - Blood doping • Leukemia cancer involving white blood cells - Leukocytes proliferate uncontrollably - Anemia, bone pain, weight loss - Fatal if not treated with radiation/chemotherapy/stem cell transplant
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