Intro to World Geography - GR 1123 Week One
Intro to World Geography - GR 1123 Week One 1123
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Taylor Baker on Sunday August 21, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 1123 at Mississippi State University taught by Staff in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 64 views. For similar materials see Intro world geography in Geography at Mississippi State University.
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Date Created: 08/21/16
Intro to World Geography Sunday, August 21, 2016 7:04 PM Week 1: Aug. 1619, 2016 Geography: • Is a Greek term. ◦ Geo means Earth ◦ Graph means something drawn or written • Definition: the art of mapping the earth Two conceptual applications of geography: • Physical space • Human space Physical Geography • Is known as "tangible" things; the things you can figuratively hold. ◦ Some examples are: climate, weather, ecosystems, landforms. Human Geography • Focuses on culture. • Is known as "intangible" things; the things you cannot hold. ◦ Some examples are: politics, culture. How do we study geography? • Through maps. Maps • The process of making maps is called cartography. • Two types of maps: ◦ Large scale maps a map which depicts a small area; basically zoomed in on the map if you will. ◦ Small scale maps a map depicting a large area; zoomed out on the map. • There are 4 parts of a map: ◦ Title ◦ Scale indicator ◦ Orientation ◦ Legend • Other features of a map include: ◦ The border ◦ Map credits ◦ Locator map (inset) ◦ Graphical design ◦ Visual hierarchy ◦ Purpose • A scale is a ratio which compares a measurement on a map to the actual distance between locations identified on the map Remote sensing gaining information about an object or phenomenon without making physical contact with it • Examples: ◦ Sonar a way to map ocean floors through sound pulses. ◦ Observing population densities over time Geographical information systems (GIS) • All about spatial relationships, patterns, and trends. • Both physical and cultural Geography of the world the interaction between humans • There are 12 geographic realms of the world ◦ There are three criteria for geographic realms 1. Physical 2. Functional interactions between humans and the environment 3. Historical has to have a historical impact on humanity ◦ Example Antarctica is not a realm • It is not functional or historical • Two realm examples of variety ◦ Monocentric one country is influencing that realm the most ◦ Polycentric several countries are impacting that realm Regions subsets within a realm • Areas of uniformity • Five criteria for a region: 1. Area 2. Location 3. Homogeneity (saneness) 4. Boundaries 5. Spatial systems • The world (and all of the regions) is interconnected. Technology has made the world smaller. • it began with the pony express (delivering mail (communication) by a man on a horse) • Then the telephone made it to where you could reach someone by phone almost instantly • Now the internet and social media have made it to where you could be in two separate countries and can communicate on a regular basis in various ways. Understanding the natural landscapes • 2/3 of the world is covered by water • How is the physical landscape influenced by geology? ◦ Plate tectonics • Theory that supports the continental drift hypothesis. • Pangea was developed by Alfred Wegener in 1912 • There are 3 types of plate tectonics ▪ Divergent which move outwards ▪ Convergent move inwards (create collisions) • Example: the Ring of Fire ▪ Transform move back and fourth • Example: the San Andreas Fault • There are two main processes to how they control landscape. ▪ Building ▪ Destroying Climate is the longterm conditions over time over a region • It is summarized by averages • It defines where people live • It defines peoples subsistence • It defines politics and economics • Some regions are essentially defined by climate Latitude and longitude • Latitude: ◦ North and South ◦ Lines are parallel (never cross) ◦ 090 degrees • Longitude: ◦ East and West ◦ Known as meridians ◦ 0180 degrees ◦ Lines converge at the poles Controls on climate • Latitude: ◦ Higher latitude tends to be cooler (less direct sun) ◦ Lower latitudes tend to be warmer (closer to the equator) • Altitude: ◦ Higher altitudes are usually cooler (rocky mountains) ◦ Lower altitudes are usually warmer (death valley) • Continentally: ◦ Land heats up quickly and cools slowly; water heats up slowly and cools slowly • In the summer inland is warmer and coast is cooler • In the winter inland is cooler and coast is warmer Climate and earth history • Glaciation a period of global cooling during which continuous ice sheets expand Human population • Urbanization ◦ The process of the population moving to urban areas • This is taking place worldwide • It is most predominant in Eastern Asia • Deurbanization ◦ The process of the population moving away from urban areas • Some reasons could be: crime, economy, taxes. Language • How we communicate • There are over 7,000 languages • There are 15 main languages ◦ IndoEuropean is the most widespread spoken language type • It is a product of European colonization of the world in the 18th and 19th centuries.
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