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Chapter 7: Eukaryotic cells and Microorganisms

by: Siân L'Roy

Chapter 7: Eukaryotic cells and Microorganisms 2420

Marketplace > Tarrant County College District > Biology > 2420 > Chapter 7 Eukaryotic cells and Microorganisms
Siân L'Roy


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This chapter explains the different types of microscopic Eukaryotic bacteria which includes: algae, protozoa, and fungi
Mark Pulse
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Siân L'Roy on Sunday August 21, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 2420 at Tarrant County College District taught by Mark Pulse in Summer 2016. Since its upload, it has received 8 views. For similar materials see Microbiology in Biology at Tarrant County College District.


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Date Created: 08/21/16
Eukaryotic cells and Microorganisms  Algae can exist as unicellular or multicellular organisms o Euglena is an example of a unicellular organism  It lives in fresh water and is motile (1 to 3 flagella)  Chloroplasts are located in cytoplasm; filled with molecules that capture  light for energy (chlorophyll b) o Chlorophyta (green algae) is an example of a multicellular organism  It can live in fresh or salt water and is non­motile  It has a thick cell wall composed of cellulose  Holdfast structure; it anchors the algae to its surroundings  o Chloroplasts are located in the cytoplasm; filled with molecules that capture light  for energy (chlorophyll b)  All algae generate energy through photosynthesis o Light or radiant energy is initially captured by chlorophyll o This excites the reaction­center chlorophyll, water is split, and high energy  electrons are released o Electrons are passed to a carrier system that generates ATP (sugar); mostly occurs in the mitochondria o Additionally, carbon dioxide is fixed into an organic molecule (glucose­6H12O ) o Oxygen is released as a byproduct o The general reaction of photosynthesis is: 6CO 2+ 12H 2O C 6H 1+6O +6H 2O Light  Protozoa are unicellular organisms that decompose organic matter (other  organisms) for energy o Most live aquatic habitats (fresh and salt water) and are motile  Motility is determined by the presence of cilia, flagella, or  pseudopodia o Protozoa lack cell walls and tend to be polymorphic in their life cycles  For example, they can exist as a trophozoite (feeding cell) or a  cyst (resting form­induced by stresses)  Some protozoa are parasites and can cause disease in humans o Prime example is the protozoa that causes malaria; accounts for 1 to 3  million deaths globally every year Eukaryotic cells and Microorganisms  Four predominant malarial parasites are:  Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium vivax,  Plasmodium ovale, and Plasmodium malariae  Malarial parasites are transmitted by an insect vector  (Anopheles mosquitoes  Once the parasite is released from the vector into the human  host, it’s carried to the liver  There it infects the liver cells, and begins to divide and shed  into the blood stream  While in the blood stream, the parasite infects the red blood  cells and rapidly divide  Red blood cells break open generating a variety of pathologies  (anemia)  Fungi, like protozoa, are decomposers of organic matter   However, unlike protozoa, they are strictly terrestrial and can exist in  macroscopic forms o Unicellular forms are called yeasts and can divide by either binary  fission or by a process known as budding o Macroscopic forms are commonly referred as molds and mushrooms  All fungi have a cell wall composed of chitin, which provides an outer  protective coat for the cell  Molds have filaments associated with them known as Hyphae o Initially, a germ tube and begins to project from a spore once it lands  in a suitable environment o A Hypha (singular) is formed as the germ tube closes and it continues  to grow o Hypha are primarily responsible for absorbing nutrients  Germ tube= Root system  Rhizoids are specialized Hyphae that extend into the substrate the mold is  associated with (anchor) Eukaryotic cells and Microorganisms  A reproductive stock, known as a Sporangiophore, will extend from the  Hyphae and eventually produce a Sporangium (spore) at its tip  Fungi that are commonly associated with human diseases are known as  Dimorphic fungi o C. immitis spores that are inhaled that can cause inflammation and  necrosis of the lung tissue o C. albicans yeast can cause respiratory, blood, and urinary tract  infections  Are the top three diseases listed on the CDC Eukaryotes vs. Prokaryotes  Eukaryotic o Cell wall only present in algae (cellulose) and fungi (chitin) cells o Multiple copies of chromosomal DNA; DNA in linear o Intracellular, membrane bound organelles present (mitochondria) o Chromosomal DNA housed in nucleus o 80S (larger) ribosomes present as unbound and bound forms  Prokaryotic o Cell wall comprised of peptidoglycan o Single copy of chromosomal DNA; DNA is supercoiled and circular o Membrane bound organelles are absent o Nucleus not present o 70S (smaller) ribosomes present as unbound forms


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