Chapter 7: Eukaryotic cells and Microorganisms
Chapter 7: Eukaryotic cells and Microorganisms 2420
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Siân L'Roy on Sunday August 21, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 2420 at Tarrant County College District taught by Mark Pulse in Summer 2016. Since its upload, it has received 8 views. For similar materials see Microbiology in Biology at Tarrant County College District.
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Date Created: 08/21/16
Eukaryotic cells and Microorganisms Algae can exist as unicellular or multicellular organisms o Euglena is an example of a unicellular organism It lives in fresh water and is motile (1 to 3 flagella) Chloroplasts are located in cytoplasm; filled with molecules that capture light for energy (chlorophyll b) o Chlorophyta (green algae) is an example of a multicellular organism It can live in fresh or salt water and is nonmotile It has a thick cell wall composed of cellulose Holdfast structure; it anchors the algae to its surroundings o Chloroplasts are located in the cytoplasm; filled with molecules that capture light for energy (chlorophyll b) All algae generate energy through photosynthesis o Light or radiant energy is initially captured by chlorophyll o This excites the reactioncenter chlorophyll, water is split, and high energy electrons are released o Electrons are passed to a carrier system that generates ATP (sugar); mostly occurs in the mitochondria o Additionally, carbon dioxide is fixed into an organic molecule (glucose6H12O ) o Oxygen is released as a byproduct o The general reaction of photosynthesis is: 6CO 2+ 12H 2O C 6H 1+6O +6H 2O Light Protozoa are unicellular organisms that decompose organic matter (other organisms) for energy o Most live aquatic habitats (fresh and salt water) and are motile Motility is determined by the presence of cilia, flagella, or pseudopodia o Protozoa lack cell walls and tend to be polymorphic in their life cycles For example, they can exist as a trophozoite (feeding cell) or a cyst (resting forminduced by stresses) Some protozoa are parasites and can cause disease in humans o Prime example is the protozoa that causes malaria; accounts for 1 to 3 million deaths globally every year Eukaryotic cells and Microorganisms Four predominant malarial parasites are: Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium vivax, Plasmodium ovale, and Plasmodium malariae Malarial parasites are transmitted by an insect vector (Anopheles mosquitoes Once the parasite is released from the vector into the human host, it’s carried to the liver There it infects the liver cells, and begins to divide and shed into the blood stream While in the blood stream, the parasite infects the red blood cells and rapidly divide Red blood cells break open generating a variety of pathologies (anemia) Fungi, like protozoa, are decomposers of organic matter However, unlike protozoa, they are strictly terrestrial and can exist in macroscopic forms o Unicellular forms are called yeasts and can divide by either binary fission or by a process known as budding o Macroscopic forms are commonly referred as molds and mushrooms All fungi have a cell wall composed of chitin, which provides an outer protective coat for the cell Molds have filaments associated with them known as Hyphae o Initially, a germ tube and begins to project from a spore once it lands in a suitable environment o A Hypha (singular) is formed as the germ tube closes and it continues to grow o Hypha are primarily responsible for absorbing nutrients Germ tube= Root system Rhizoids are specialized Hyphae that extend into the substrate the mold is associated with (anchor) Eukaryotic cells and Microorganisms A reproductive stock, known as a Sporangiophore, will extend from the Hyphae and eventually produce a Sporangium (spore) at its tip Fungi that are commonly associated with human diseases are known as Dimorphic fungi o C. immitis spores that are inhaled that can cause inflammation and necrosis of the lung tissue o C. albicans yeast can cause respiratory, blood, and urinary tract infections Are the top three diseases listed on the CDC Eukaryotes vs. Prokaryotes Eukaryotic o Cell wall only present in algae (cellulose) and fungi (chitin) cells o Multiple copies of chromosomal DNA; DNA in linear o Intracellular, membrane bound organelles present (mitochondria) o Chromosomal DNA housed in nucleus o 80S (larger) ribosomes present as unbound and bound forms Prokaryotic o Cell wall comprised of peptidoglycan o Single copy of chromosomal DNA; DNA is supercoiled and circular o Membrane bound organelles are absent o Nucleus not present o 70S (smaller) ribosomes present as unbound forms
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