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Organic Chemistry Week 1 and Chapter One Notes

by: Jayda Abrams

Organic Chemistry Week 1 and Chapter One Notes Chem301

Marketplace > Virginia Commonwealth University > Chemistry > Chem301 > Organic Chemistry Week 1 and Chapter One Notes
Jayda Abrams
Virginia Commonwealth University
GPA 3.52
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Notes Cover topics from Chapter One of the course and book ( Organic Chemistry Wade 8th Edition). Acid Base, Resonance and Basic Formulas
Organic Chemistry 1
Mr. Jon Baker
Class Notes
organic, Chemistry




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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jayda Abrams on Sunday August 21, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Chem301 at Virginia Commonwealth University taught by Mr. Jon Baker in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 53 views. For similar materials see Organic Chemistry 1 in Chemistry at Virginia Commonwealth University.


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Date Created: 08/21/16
Resonance Compounds can have more than one Lewis structure that represents them correctly. The biggest difference between structures are where the electrons are placed in each one. These are called resonance structures or resonance forms. They are not different compounds but they are drawn in different ways. Resonance molecules will usually show characteristics of the different resonance structures even though it is something completely different. The actual molecule will be a resonance hybrid of the resonance forms. Since the actual molecule is a hybrid, this means the individual resonance structures are not completely accurate, and are not real. This can be compared to a rhino. The hybridization (or coming together) of a dragon and a unicorn will create a rhino. Even though dragons are not real, and unicorns are not real, rhinos are. This is the same in resonance. One structure that is not real combines with another structure that is not real and it creates a real structure. When comparing resonance forms, the more stable form is the major contributor and the less stable form is the minor contributor. Using Arrows in Resonance When drawing resonance structures arrows are very important. When showing the flow of electrons curved arrows are used. When showing the flow of a single electron a curved fishhook arrow is used. When showing that two structures have resonance a double sided arrow is used. Do not use a single sided arrow because this means that the two structures are in equilibrium! Flow of Electrons Flow of Electron Resonance Remember With Resonance… … ALL structures must be VALID Lewis structures. …you want to have as many octets as possible. …only electrons are moving between structures. Nuclei cannot be moved and bond angles stay the same! Also remember that the number of unpaired electrons as well as the formal charge will stay the same. …the most stable compounds have no unpaired electrons. …the major contributor is the one with the lowest energy. Good contributors usually have octets filled, have as many bonds as possible and have little charge separation. …negative charges are more stable on more electronegative atoms (like O, N and S). …resonance stabilization is important when it is used to delocalize a charge over two or more atoms. …curved arrows are used to show the flow of electrons. This diagram shows six different resonance structures of the same molecule. Notice how each individual structure has the same components and has the same total formal charge. Also notice the double headed arrow between structures and that the overall structure of the molecule has not changed. Chapter 1 The Basic Formulas Formula Description Example Shows which atoms are bonded to which. There Structural Formula are two types of Structural Formulas. There are Lewis Structures and there are Condensed Structural Formulas. Written without bonds and has the central atoms Condensed Structural and the atoms attached to Formula it listed out beside it. Nonbonding electrons are rarely shown. Show individual bonds Lewis Structures and often also shows the physical electrons. Also referred to as stick figure or skeletal structures. Bonds are represented by lines and carbons are assumed at Line Angle Formula the ends, and bends. Hydrogen atoms are usually not shown and it is assumed that carbon atoms have enough hydrogen atoms to give it a total of four bonds. Gives the number of Molecular Formula atoms of each element in a C 6 O12 6 molecule of a compound. Empirical Formula Compares the ratios of elements present. C 2 5


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