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KINES 456 - Week 2 Notes

by: Christopher Cooke

KINES 456 - Week 2 Notes Kines 456

Christopher Cooke
Penn State
GPA 3.5

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Notes from Week 2 of KINES 456 - covering signs, symptoms and risk factors for CVD
Physical Fitness Appraisal
Dr. Christopher Bopp
Class Notes
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Christopher Cooke on Monday August 22, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Kines 456 at Pennsylvania State University taught by Dr. Christopher Bopp in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 39 views. For similar materials see Physical Fitness Appraisal in Kinesiology at Pennsylvania State University.

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Date Created: 08/22/16
Kines 456 8-29- 16 Table 2.1 – Signs and Symptoms of Cardiovascular Disease  Pain: pressure, dull ache, or sharp “jabs” felt in the chest, neck, jaw, and arms (especially left). Triggered by physical activity, excitement, stress, and cold weather; can occur after meals  Shortness of breath or dyspnea: occurs at rest or with moderate (untrained)/vigorous (trained) exercise  Dizziness or syncope (loss of consciousness): occurs during exercise  Orthopnea: dyspnea that occurs at rest while lying down/hunched, relieved by standing/sitting up  Paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea: inability to breathe properly 2-5hrs into sleeping; relieved by standing/sitting or getting out of bed  Ankle edema: swelling in the ankles  Palpitations and tachycardia (RHR ≥100bpm)  Intermittent claudication: pain in a targeted area as a response to exercise and insufficient oxygen supply; especially known to occur in the calves (walking uphill/with resistance)  Known heart murmur  Unusual fatigue/shortness of breath as a response to normal activity Table 2.2 – Risk Factors for Cardiovascular Disease  Age: older than 45 for men, 55 for women  Smoking: any time in the past 6 months; secondhand smoke included  Sedentary lifestyle: any less than 30-minutes of moderate intensity physical activity 3x/week for at least 3 months prior to testing  Obesity: BMI ≥ 30 or waist ≥ 40in (men)/35in (women)  Hypertension: systolic blood pressure ≥140 mmHg, diastolic blood pressure ≥90 mmHg; must be confirmed by at least 2 measurements taken at different times o Any anti-hypertension medication implies risk  Dyslipidemia: LDL ≥ 130 mg/dL; HDL < 40 mg/dL (if not specified, total cholesterol ≥ 200 mg/dL) o Any lipid-lowering medication implies risk  Pre-diabetes: fasting plasma glucose between 100 and 125 mg/dL or impaired glucose tolerance (≥ 140 mg/dL); must be confirmed by at least 2 measurements taken at different times Negative Risk Factors for Cardiovascular Disease  High HDLs - ≥60 mg/dL Case Studies – Signs, Symptoms and Risk Factors  Bob o 56 years old – risk factor o Hypertension – risk factor o Quit smoking 3 months ago – risk factor o Little time to exercise – risk factor o BMI <30, waist >40 in – ambiguous (BMI is lower than threshold, waist is above threshold to determine risk)  Gary o Has not been exercising for the past three months – risk factor o Smoked within 6 months – risk factor o Brother with bypass surgery at age 45 – risk factor o HDL > 60 – negative risk factor o Pharmaceutically regulates blood pressure – risk factor  Payton o ACE inhibitor for blood pressure regulation – risk factor  Robin o Over age 55 – risk factor o Smoking within 6 months – risk factor o HDL <30 – risk factor  Albert o Over age 45 – risk factor o Family history – risk factor o Smoking within 6 months – risk factor o Hypertension – risk factor o HDL >60 – negative risk factor o BMI > 30 – risk factor  Paul o 45 years old – Risk factor o Quit smoking 4 months ago – Risk factor o Exercises weekly – Risk factor o BMI 30.02 – Risk factor o ACE-inhibitor to regulate blood pressure – Risk factor  Amanda o 20 minutes of daily exercise – Risk factor o Total cholesterol 202 mg/dL – Risk factor (HDL specified, LDL unspecified/assumed to be 162 mg/dL which is outside of the acceptable range)  Matt o 73 years old – Risk factor o HDL 72 mg/dL – Negative risk factor  Roberta o 64 years old – Risk factor o Diabetes – Risk factor o Captopril for blood pressure – Risk factor o Smokes weekly – Risk factor o BMI >30 – Risk factor o Mother had bypass surgery at 63 – Risk factor Body Composition  Relative amount or percentage of different types of body tissue (fat, muscle, bone) Why do we care?  Obesity comes with an increased risk of CVD and DM  Increases morbidity; shortens lifespans Gold standard?  None yet  Underwater/hydrostatic viewed by some as gold standard, DEXA scanning is becoming the gold standard BMI  Formerly Quetelet Index  Does not provide information on %BF or body composition 2  Weight in KG / height in m  100kg/1.78m = 31.25 kg/m 2 Height and weight  Scale and stadiometer should be used to obtain most accurate readings; scale should be calibrated  Take serial readings at approximately the same time each day Proper technique – Height  Remove shoes and hat  Feet together, back straight  Touch the wall with heels and upper back  Head should be held in neutral  Lower headpiece to the top of the skull Proper technique – Weight  Minimal clothing (shorts and t-shirt)  Void bladder before measurement  Take measurements in the morning if possible o If not, time serial measurements for same time of day Girth measurements  Waist girth – measured at the smallest circumference o Above the belly button and below the xiphoid process  Stand on the right of the subject  Measure on bare skin  Take at the end of exhalation  Tape should be parallel to the floor  Pull with 4oz of consistent pressure o Gulick tension tapes have a pressure gauge built in  Take the average of two readings Body Volume  If you know the mass of the subject and the volume that the subject occupies, you can calculate the density of the subject’s body (mass/volume)  Calculated density is then used to derive body fat % based on a known difference in density of fat vs. fat free tissue  Archimedes Principle Siri and Brozek Equations  Most common equations to derive body fat % from density  Siri: BF% = (495/Db) – 450  Brozek: BF% = (457/Db) – 414.2


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