A & P Week 1, Class 1 notes
A & P Week 1, Class 1 notes BIOL 2500-003
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Becky Stinchcomb on Monday August 22, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 2500-003 at Auburn University taught by Dr. Shobnom Ferdous in Summer 2016. Since its upload, it has received 51 views.
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Date Created: 08/22/16
A & P I August 17, 2016 1 Day of Class!!! - SI Sessions T/TR 4-5:30 Haley 3196 - Office Hours: MWF: 12- 1:30 PM 144 Funchess - Marieb and Hoehn, Human Anatomy and th th Physiology, 9 ed. (OR 10 ed) Custom Edition for Auburn - Use Canvas, Mastering, and Learning Catalytics - In class quizzes could be daily, weekly, bi- weekly (using Learning Catalytics or on paper) - Total of 810 pts 3 Lecture Exams: 100 pts each Final: 100 pts Quizzes: 30 pts 3 Lab Exams: 100 pts each Lab Quizzes: 9 at 5 pts each Mastering: 45 pts Lab Report: 10 pts - 729 is an A - 648 is a B What is A & P? - Anatomy: “to cut apart”; study of structure of body parts and relationships to each other - Physiology: study of the function of the body parts; how they work to carry out life- sustaining activities Hippocrates - 460- 377 B.C. - Greek physician - Father of Western medicine - First to separate disease from superstition - Key players in early anatomy - Hippocratic Oath Beginning to understand organ systems - Plato & Aristotle- 5 – 2 nd centuries BC Vivisections furthered knowledge of anatond - Herophilus & Eristratus- approx.. 2 century B.C. vivisections of criminals - 129 AD- Galen- vivisections of pigs and primates; wrote “the” anatomy text used for 1500 years - Middle Ages- study of anatomy outlawed - Renaissance- anatomical interest/ knowledge reestablished th th - 17 & 18 Centuries- anatomists like celebrities; paid to see dissections I large amphitheaters Subdivisions of Anatomy - Gross (macroscopic): the study of large, visible structures (organs, etc.) - Microscopic: need instruments to see, study of structures too small to be visible to naked eye (cellular levels) ADVANCES: - 1600s, Galileo made compound light microscope which allowed the viewing of tissues and components that make up tissues (cells); magnifies up to 1000x - 1930s: electron microscopes (SEM & TEM) developed Branches of Anatomy - Developmental Anatomy: study of structural changes that occur between conception and adulthood - Embryology: study of developments before birth - Gross/ Macroscopic Anatomy: study large body structures such as stomach, lungs, heart - Systemic Anatomy: cardiologist - Regional Anatomy: ear, nose, throat - Microscopic Anatomy: structures too small to be seen with the naked eye are studied using a microscope histology, cytology - Radiological Anatomy: study of anatomy using non- invasive imaging technology X- Ray Image - Wilhelm Rontgen, in late 1800s - More dense structures show up white (bones, organs) - Less dense structures show up black (lungs and fat) - Computed tomography (CT): uses X-Rays, invented in 1970s; x- rays pass through body in thin cross- sections; computer puts images of the cross- sections together to give 3D image - Ultrasound: invented in 1920s, uses sound waves, which get reflected/ scattered when they hit something; analyzed by computer to generate 2D or 3D image Used frequently in obstetrics because of safety Low penetrating power so not good for looking at structures/ organs surrounded by bone Terminology and the Body Plan A.Body Positions 1.Anatomic Position- subject is: a.Standing erect b.Facing foreward c. Upper limbs hanging to the sides d.Palms face forward e.Any time you refer to a subject you always assume anatomic position 2.Supine: subject laying on back face upward 3.Prone: subject lying on belly face downward Directional Terms: allow explanation of where body parts in relation to one another 1.Superior: - Toward head, above - Aka cranial cephalic - Example: shoulder is superior to the pelvis 2.Inferior: - Away from head, below - Aka caudal (tail) - Example: abdomen is inferior to the neck 3.Ventral: - Front side of the body - Aka anterior - Example: the sternum is anterior to the spine 4.Dorsal: - Back side of the body - Aka posterior - Example: the heart is posterior to the ribcage 5.Medial: - Toward the midline of the body, the inner side of - Example: the nose is medial to the eye 6.Lateral: - Away from the midline, on the other side of - Example: the ear is lateral to the eye 7.Intermediate : - Between a more medial and a more lateral structure - Example: the collarbone is intermediate between the sternum and shoulder 8.Proximal: - Closer to the point of attachment of a limb to the body trunk - Example: the elbow is proximal to the wrist 9.Distal: - Further from the point of attachment of a limb to the body trunk - Example: the knee is distal to the thigh 10. Superficial: - Toward the body’s surface - Aka external - Example: skeletal muscles are superficial to bones 11. Deep: - Away from the body’s surface - Aka internal - Example: the lungs are deep to the ribs 12. Bilateral: - Two- sided, affecting both sides equally - Example: we are bilaterally symmetrical (we are symmetrical about our midline) 13. Ipsilateral - Located on the same side of the body - Example: right leg and arm 14. Contralateral - On opposite sides of the body - Example: right arm and left leg (or right leg and left arm) Body Regions and Planes 1.Two main regions a.Axial (head, neck, trunk) b.Appendicular (appendages, limbs) 2.Three planes a.Sagittal: vertical plane that divides the body into right and left halves i. Midsagittal: equal ii. Parasagittal: unequal b.Frontal (vertical, coronal): plane that divided the body into anterior and posterior halves c. Transverse (horizontal): plane that divides the body into superior and inferior parts