A & P Week 1, Class 2 Notes
A & P Week 1, Class 2 Notes BIOL 2500-003
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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Becky Stinchcomb on Monday August 22, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 2500-003 at Auburn University taught by Dr. Shobnom Ferdous in Summer 2016. Since its upload, it has received 48 views.
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Date Created: 08/22/16
A & P August 19, 2016 2ndDay of Class!!! 2 Main Body Cavities - Dorsal body cavity: cranial cavity (skull and brain) and vertebral cavity (spinal cord) - Ventral body cavity: 2 main cavities separated by diaphragm Thoracic cavity: superior to diaphragm; contains heart and lungs a.Pleural cavities (2): lungs b.Mediastinum: pericardial cavity (envelopes heart) Abdominopelvic (4 quadrants RUQ, LUQ, RLQ LLQ): inferior to diaphragm; 2 parts not separated by muscle or membrane a.Abdominal cavity (superior): houses stomach, intestine, spleen, liver other organs b.Pelvic cavity (inferior): lies in pelvis, houses urinary bladder, spleen, liver Regions of Abdominopelvic Cavity - Right hypochondriac - Epigastric - Left hypochondriac - Right lumbar - Umbilical - Left lumbar - Right iliac (inguinal) - Hypogastric (pubic) - Left iliac (inguinal) Membranes - Serosa (serous membranes): thin, double layered membrane, lines walls of ventral body cavity and outer surfaces of organs Visceral serosa: covers organs Parietal serosa: lines cavity walls Pleurisy/ Peritonitis: causes roughening of pleurae or peritoneum causes organs to stick together and drag across one another- very painful Serous membranes Pleural cavity: Pericardial cavitycavity: pelvic visceral serosa: visceral pleura visceral pericardium visceral peritoneum covers organs parietal serosa: parietal pleura parietal pericardiparietal peritoneum lines cavities - Pleurisy: inflammation of pleura(e) - Peritonitis: inflammation of peritoneum Cellular Biology Ultrastructure Diaphragm from book Why it matters? - Understanding structure of body’s cells explains why permeability of plasma membrane can affect treatment Cell - Cell theory - Basic structural and functional unit of body How well entire organism functions depends on individual and combined activities of all of its cells Structure and function complementary Biochemical functions of cells dictated by shape of cell and specific subcellular structures Continuity of life has cellular basis Cells can arise only from other preexisting cells Cells: Living Units - Cell diversity Over 200 different types of human cells Types differ in size, shape, and subcellular components; differences lead to differences in function (always think in terms of function) - Generalized cell All cells have some common structures and functions Human cells have three basic parts 1.Plasma membrane: flexible outer boundary 2.Cytoplasm: intracellular fluid containing organelles (contains ribosomes, ER [soft and rough], lysosomes, mitochondria, etc.) 3.Nucleus: DNA containing control center Specialized Cells - Red Blood Cell Small, no nucleus - Skeletal muscle cell Cylindrical, multi- nucleated, long - Neuron Cell body with axon and dendrites Neuron may not be detectable to an axonal process 1 meter long - Sperm Cell Flagellated - There are specialized cells for certain functions that have characteristic structural modifications - Neuron may not be detectable to human eye but can have an axonal process 1 meter long - Many of different types of cell types (over 200) Basic Structural Similarities of Cells - All have to metabolize to stay alive so all cells have basic structural similarities 1.Plasma/ Cell Membrane Outer boundary of cell Separates inside of cell (intracellular) from outside of cell (extracellular) Control what enters/ exits cell Very thin (5 to 10 nanometers) Need electron microscope to see Also known as “cell membrane” Structure of Plasma Membrane - Consists of membrane lipids that form a flexible lipid bilayer - Specialized membrane proteins float through this fluid membrane, resulting in constantly changing patterns Referred to as fluid mosaic (made up of many pieces) pattern - Surface sugars from glycocalyx - Membrane structures help to hold cells together through cell junctions - Some cells are “free” (not bound to any other cells) Examples: blood cells or sperm cells Fluid Mosaic Model of plasma membrane - Main components are proteins imbedded/ dispersed throughout a phospholipid bilayer (double layer) - Proteins float within liquid lipid bilayer contributing to the mosaic Composition of Plasma Membrane 1.Lipid Bilayer a.Largely phospholipids Polar “head”- hydrophilic (attracted to water) Non-polar “tail”- hydrophobic (2 fatty acid chains, repelled by water) b.Glycolipids (approx. 5%)- lipids with sugar groups attached c. Cholesterol (20%)- 20% of plasma membrane lipids are cholesterol Phospholipid Bilayer Diagram 2.Lipid Rafts (20%) - On outer membrane surface - May be attached to proteins so serve as site for receptors (to bind molecules), or proteins needed for cell signaling, or endocytosis (membrane invagination to bring substances into cell) - Dynamic assembly of saturated phospholipids, sphingolipids and cholesterol - Important for various functions 3.Plasma membrane proteins (50% by mass) - Integral proteins - Peripheral proteins Membrane Lipids - Lipid bilayer made up of 75% phospholipids, which consist of two parts: Phosphate heads: polar (charged), so hydrophilic (water- loving) Membrane Proteins - Allow cell communication with environment - Make up about half the mass of plasma membrane - Most have specialized membrane functions INTEGRAL PLASMA MEMBRANE PROTEINS DIAGRAM Functions of Integral Plasma Membrane Proteins 1.Transport: (channels and carriers), enzymes, or receptors cluster of transmembrane proteins can form channels (pores) small, water- soluble molecule or ions (like Na, K) a.Channels: let certain substances pass in/out of cell b.Carrier proteins: substance biding induces conformational change (shape change of protein) 2.Receptor a.Bind Substances: relay messages to cell interior 3.Enzyme: catalysts- speed reactions (like Na/ K ATPase pump) 4.Cell junctions: secure cells to each other a.Tight junctions: integral proteins of neighboring cells fuse together b.Desmosomes: like ‘velcro’- protein filaments extend from adjacent cells and link together c. Gap junctions: channels of adjacent cells connect CANVAS
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