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A & P Week 1, Class 2 Notes

by: Becky Stinchcomb

A & P Week 1, Class 2 Notes BIOL 2500-003

Marketplace > Auburn University > BIOL 2500-003 > A P Week 1 Class 2 Notes
Becky Stinchcomb

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These notes cover what we went over in class on the second day of class!
Human Anatomy & Physiology I
Dr. Shobnom Ferdous
Class Notes
anatomy, Physiology
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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Becky Stinchcomb on Monday August 22, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 2500-003 at Auburn University taught by Dr. Shobnom Ferdous in Summer 2016. Since its upload, it has received 48 views.


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Date Created: 08/22/16
A & P August 19, 2016 2ndDay of Class!!! 2 Main Body Cavities - Dorsal body cavity: cranial cavity (skull and brain) and vertebral cavity (spinal cord) - Ventral body cavity: 2 main cavities separated by diaphragm  Thoracic cavity: superior to diaphragm; contains heart and lungs a.Pleural cavities (2): lungs b.Mediastinum: pericardial cavity (envelopes heart)  Abdominopelvic (4 quadrants RUQ, LUQ, RLQ LLQ): inferior to diaphragm; 2 parts not separated by muscle or membrane a.Abdominal cavity (superior): houses stomach, intestine, spleen, liver other organs b.Pelvic cavity (inferior): lies in pelvis, houses urinary bladder, spleen, liver Regions of Abdominopelvic Cavity - Right hypochondriac - Epigastric - Left hypochondriac - Right lumbar - Umbilical - Left lumbar - Right iliac (inguinal) - Hypogastric (pubic) - Left iliac (inguinal) Membranes - Serosa (serous membranes): thin, double layered membrane, lines walls of ventral body cavity and outer surfaces of organs  Visceral serosa: covers organs  Parietal serosa: lines cavity walls  Pleurisy/ Peritonitis: causes roughening of pleurae or peritoneum causes organs to stick together and drag across one another- very painful Serous membranes Pleural cavity:  Pericardial cavitycavity: pelvic  visceral serosa: visceral pleura   visceral pericardium  visceral peritoneum  covers organs  parietal serosa: parietal pleura   parietal pericardiparietal peritoneum  lines cavities  - Pleurisy: inflammation of pleura(e) - Peritonitis: inflammation of peritoneum Cellular Biology Ultrastructure Diaphragm from book Why it matters? - Understanding structure of body’s cells explains why permeability of plasma membrane can affect treatment Cell - Cell theory - Basic structural and functional unit of body  How well entire organism functions depends on individual and combined activities of all of its cells  Structure and function complementary  Biochemical functions of cells dictated by shape of cell and specific subcellular structures  Continuity of life has cellular basis  Cells can arise only from other preexisting cells Cells: Living Units - Cell diversity  Over 200 different types of human cells  Types differ in size, shape, and subcellular components; differences lead to differences in function (always think in terms of function) - Generalized cell  All cells have some common structures and functions  Human cells have three basic parts 1.Plasma membrane: flexible outer boundary 2.Cytoplasm: intracellular fluid containing organelles (contains ribosomes, ER [soft and rough], lysosomes, mitochondria, etc.) 3.Nucleus: DNA containing control center Specialized Cells - Red Blood Cell  Small, no nucleus - Skeletal muscle cell  Cylindrical, multi- nucleated, long - Neuron  Cell body with axon and dendrites  Neuron may not be detectable to an axonal process 1 meter long - Sperm Cell  Flagellated - There are specialized cells for certain functions that have characteristic structural modifications - Neuron may not be detectable to human eye but can have an axonal process 1 meter long - Many of different types of cell types (over 200) Basic Structural Similarities of Cells - All have to metabolize to stay alive so all cells have basic structural similarities 1.Plasma/ Cell Membrane  Outer boundary of cell  Separates inside of cell (intracellular) from outside of cell (extracellular)  Control what enters/ exits cell  Very thin (5 to 10 nanometers)  Need electron microscope to see  Also known as “cell membrane” Structure of Plasma Membrane - Consists of membrane lipids that form a flexible lipid bilayer - Specialized membrane proteins float through this fluid membrane, resulting in constantly changing patterns  Referred to as fluid mosaic (made up of many pieces) pattern - Surface sugars from glycocalyx - Membrane structures help to hold cells together through cell junctions - Some cells are “free” (not bound to any other cells)  Examples: blood cells or sperm cells Fluid Mosaic Model of plasma membrane - Main components are proteins imbedded/ dispersed throughout a phospholipid bilayer (double layer) - Proteins float within liquid lipid bilayer contributing to the mosaic Composition of Plasma Membrane 1.Lipid Bilayer a.Largely phospholipids  Polar “head”- hydrophilic (attracted to water)  Non-polar “tail”- hydrophobic (2 fatty acid chains, repelled by water) b.Glycolipids (approx. 5%)- lipids with sugar groups attached c. Cholesterol (20%)- 20% of plasma membrane lipids are cholesterol Phospholipid Bilayer Diagram 2.Lipid Rafts (20%) - On outer membrane surface - May be attached to proteins so serve as site for receptors (to bind molecules), or proteins needed for cell signaling, or endocytosis (membrane invagination to bring substances into cell) - Dynamic assembly of saturated phospholipids, sphingolipids and cholesterol - Important for various functions 3.Plasma membrane proteins (50% by mass) - Integral proteins - Peripheral proteins Membrane Lipids - Lipid bilayer made up of  75% phospholipids, which consist of two parts:  Phosphate heads: polar (charged), so hydrophilic (water- loving) Membrane Proteins - Allow cell communication with environment - Make up about half the mass of plasma membrane - Most have specialized membrane functions INTEGRAL PLASMA MEMBRANE PROTEINS DIAGRAM Functions of Integral Plasma Membrane Proteins 1.Transport: (channels and carriers), enzymes, or receptors cluster of transmembrane proteins can form channels (pores) small, water- soluble molecule or ions (like Na, K) a.Channels: let certain substances pass in/out of cell b.Carrier proteins: substance biding induces conformational change (shape change of protein) 2.Receptor a.Bind Substances: relay messages to cell interior 3.Enzyme: catalysts- speed reactions (like Na/ K ATPase pump) 4.Cell junctions: secure cells to each other a.Tight junctions: integral proteins of neighboring cells fuse together b.Desmosomes: like ‘velcro’- protein filaments extend from adjacent cells and link together c. Gap junctions: channels of adjacent cells connect CANVAS


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