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Severe and Unusual Weather Week 1 Notes

by: Rhiannon Cobb

Severe and Unusual Weather Week 1 Notes METR 140

Marketplace > University of Nebraska Lincoln > Science > METR 140 > Severe and Unusual Weather Week 1 Notes
Rhiannon Cobb
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About this Document

These notes begin to cover what will be on our first exam on October 4th. These notes specifically cover Air Pressure, Coriolis Effect, and how to measure weather!
Severe and Unusual Weather
Orf, Leigh
Class Notes
Science, weather, Meterology




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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Rhiannon Cobb on Monday August 22, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to METR 140 at University of Nebraska Lincoln taught by Orf, Leigh in Summer 2016. Since its upload, it has received 44 views. For similar materials see Severe and Unusual Weather in Science at University of Nebraska Lincoln.


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Date Created: 08/22/16
Thursday, August 25, 2016 Severe and Unusual Weather Air Pressure, Coriolis Effect, Measuring Weather - Air Pressure - the force from the weight of the air pushing against a surface • air inside a balloon pushes outward and keeps the balloon inflated - air pressure on the outside keeps the balloon inflated • in the atmosphere, air pressure is the weight of the air pushing down on everything below you - the more air pressure above you, the higher the air pressure • Air moves from areas of high pressure to low pressure (which causes wind) • Altitude, the higher the altitude the less air therefor the air pressure is lower - measure air in millibars(mb) or hectopascal(hPa). these are the same thing! • Sea level - 0 feet, 1013.25 mb • Lincoln - 1,200 ft, 970 mb • Denver, Colorado - 5,280 ft, 830 mb • Mt. everest - 29,029 feet, 320mb. - Air doesn’t fly upward to low pressure because gravity holds it down • Air pressure measurements - when you see air pressure measurements, you're usually seeing what the pressure would be if you were at sea level (sea level pressure). • Air Pressure on Earth - typically range from 970-1050mb - Highest: 1083.2 mn - Lowest: 970mb (typhoon tip) - Low pres. stormy weather - High Pressure - fair weather 1 Thursday, August 25, 2016 • (insert Isobar picture) - isobar close together mean strong winds - isobars far apart mean weak winds - isobars - the pressure is the same (for example, 1016 mb) everywhere along the line • Air Pressure and Winds - winds are faster if isobars are close together - the wind does not immediately go from high pressure to low pressure - Coriolis Effect - turns winds to the right in the northern hemisphere and the left in the southern hemisphere (no effect at the equator) - The Coriolis Effect NOVA • - The Coriolis Effect National Geographic • • The Coriolis effect causes winds to spiral into low pressure and out of high pressure • The wind curves differently on each hemisphere (watch the videos for clarification) How do we observe weather? - Radar • rain/snowfall/hail • winds (toward or away from the radar) - Satellite • Clouds • Cloud top height • Moisture - Surface Observations 2 Thursday, August 25, 2016 • temperature • humidity • pressure • wind • rainfall • cloud cover - Weather balloons (radiosondes) - measure upper air conditions • temperature • humidity • pressure • wind • altitude - Ocean • We don’t have surface observations, radiosondes, or radar over the ocean • Buoys - air and water temperature - humidity - wind - pressure - what height and period • Hurricane hunter aircraft fly into storms, especially where there aren't other observations - - Dropsondes 3 Thursday, August 25, 2016 - Tropical Cyclone Classification • Tropical depression - less than 39 mph winds, given a number, not an actual name • Tropical storm - 39-73 mph, given a name • Hurricane - 74mph or stronger winds - What do hurricanes need to form? • warm ocean temperatures (usually at least 79 degrees) • high humidity throughout the atmosphere - unstable atmosphere (provides energy for rising air in thunderstorms) • weak vertical wind shear (winds don't change speed or direction much as you go up in the atmosphere) - generally weak winds • Coriolis (hurricanes don’t form right on the equator) • Low pressure (like a tropical wave) Hurricanes - hurricanes develop in tropical regions of many oceans (sometimes called typhoons or cyclones) • - Atlantic hurricane season is June 1-Nov. 30 - June is not an ideal time for hurricanes. Warm water - July is also not ideal for hurricanes, you begin to see a shift. - August tends to become more favorable as storms start to push into the atlantic. • Start to see things form around Africa and push towards the gulf - September is similar to august, water is still warm, it is the best month of the year to get hurricanes in the atlantic - October, water is still warm, but stronger winds in the atmosphere (begins to become unfavorable) - November, water cools off and isn’t favorable. 4


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