New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here


by: Nicholas Lozano
Nicholas Lozano

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

Advanced Cell Biology 470
Dr. Hart, Dr. D'Arcangelo, Dr. Kwan, Dr. Schwander
Class Notes
Muscular System
25 ?




Popular in Advanced Cell Biology 470

Popular in Cell Biology & Neuroscience

This 18 page Class Notes was uploaded by Nicholas Lozano on Monday August 22, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Advanced Cell Biology 470 at Rutgers University taught by Dr. Hart, Dr. D'Arcangelo, Dr. Kwan, Dr. Schwander in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 10 views. For similar materials see Advanced Cell Biology 470 in Cell Biology & Neuroscience at Rutgers University.

Similar to Advanced Cell Biology 470 at Rutgers


Reviews for MCAT


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 08/22/16
kkChapter 6- The Musculoskeletal system Skeletal System  Divided into axial (skullm, vertebral column, and ribcage) and appendicular components Cartilage  Made of a firm matrix called chondrin, secreted by chondrocytes. Bone  Compact bone, spongy (cancelleous) has spicles- trabecule: cavities filled with marrow. Red marrow- has hematopoietic stem cells- blood generation. Yellow marrow- primarily fat and inactive. Diagram 124. Epiphyseal pate- site of longitudinal growth  Gets strength from bone matrix: organic- glycoproteins, collagen, peptides, inorganic- phosphate, calcium, hydroxide.  Diagram 125, lacunae house osteocytes canliculi- canal exchange of nutrients  Endochondral ossification- formataion of most of the long bones in the body, hardening of cartilage. Intramembraneous ossification- undifferentiated connective embryonic tissue forming bones  Bone reformation is the reuptake of calcium and phosphate, breakdown allows the ions to be released into the blood  Joints- diagram 127 Skeletal muscle  Red fibers- high myoglobin content, bulk of energy obtained aerobically  White fibers- anaerobic, much less myoglobin Sarcomere  Z line- I band, M line- H zone- A band Contraction  Neuron sends via motor neurons nerve terminal release neurotransmitter synapse depolarized (ready to go)  Rigor mortis- without ATP formuscle relaxation  Latent,, contraction, relaxation periods- refractory: absolute or relative(needs a stronger stimulus)  Tonus- constract contraction Smooth muscle  Myogenic activity, nonstriated, uninuclei, Muscle bone interaction  Origin- muscle on stationary bone. Proximal- limb muscle. Insertion-end of muscle attatched to the bone that moves during contraction- distal end in limb muscles. Chapter 7 Digestion Anatomical Considerations  Digestion occurs within the lumen of the alimentary canal  Oral cavity  pharynx, esophaguys, stomach, small intestine, large intestine. Accessory organs: pancreas, liver, gall bladder Epithelium  In most of our bodies, the epithelia are called mucous membranes. Epithelia are bound to our body by basement membranes.  Simple, stratified, pseudostratified- one, two+, one. Cuboidal, columnar, squamouns- cube, column, scaled. Oral Cavity  Salivary amaylase- contains ptyalin (starch) and lipase (lipids) Pharynx  Mouth/nose to espohpgus. Epiglottis- covers up trachea during swallowing. Esophagus  Persalisis- progressive contractions that move food down the esophagus. Lower Esophageal sphincter- approaches the stomach. Stomach  Stomach mucosa contains gastric glands and the pyloric glands. Gastric glands respond to signals in the brain, which are activated by the sight, taste, and smell of food. Glands are composed of mucous cells, (prevents acidity) chief cells, and parietal cells. Gastric juice releases pepsinogen, parietal cells release HCL  Pyloric glands secrete gastrin hormone, which induces cells to secrete HCl and to mix contents in the stomach.  chime. Small Intestine  Food leaves stomach through pyloric sphincter, entering the deudenum of the small intestine.  Three sections: duodenum, jejunum, ileum. Made up of microvilli Digestive Functions  Digestion occurs in duodenum.  Pancreatic juice is a complex mixture of several enzymes in a bicarbonate solution, which helps neutralize the acidic chime  Bile- produced in liver and stored in gall bladder  Enzymes produced in pancreas are most active around pH 8.5  Pancreatic amylase- breaks down polysacchs to small disacchs  Pancreatic peptidases (trypsinogen, chymotrypsinogen, elastinogen, carboxypeptidase) are released in zymogen form then responsible for proteins digestion. Trypsinogen trypsin if enterokinase allows it to (master switch). Lipase- breaks down fatty acids.  Bile reslease is in response to cholecystokinin (CCK), which is released by small intestine in response to the movement of chime out of the stomach and into the intestines (pH 7.5-8.8). allows fat to me emulsified.  If you had a fatty meal, the duodenum will release the hormone enterogastrone to slow the movement of the chime and allow a great time to digest the fat. Absorptive Functions  Occur in the jejunum and ileum  Carbs and amino acids are absorbed by active transport and facilitated diffusion into the epithelial cells lining the gut. intestinal capillaries (diffuse into cells because of concentration gradients)  liver via hepatic portal circulation. Small fats also diffuse. Large fats moe separately into the intestinal cells but then re-form into triglycerides. The triglycerides and esterified cholesterol molecules are packaged into insoluable chylomicrons, and enter the lymphatic circulation through lacteals. Chylomicrons are processed directly in yhr bloodstream into low- density lipoproteins.  Fat soluable vitamins- DAKE, Water soluable- BC Large Intestine  Involved in water absorption. Divided into cecum (a pocket with no outlet that connects the small and large intestines and contains the appendix), colon (absorbing waters and salts, recycling system), rectum (storage site for feces; internal- involuntary and external-voluntary scphincters. ). Chapter 8 Respiration Anatomy  Food travels through pharynx- tunnel between mouth and esophagus.  Air travels through larynx, epiglottis covers larynx during swallowing. trachea bronchibronchioles..) alveoli (tiny structures where gas exchange occurs). Each alveolus is covered with a surfactant, which is a detergent that lowers surface tension and prevents the alveolus from collapsing on itself. Ventilation  Lungs in thoracic cavity. Separated from organs of digestion by diaphragm that is necessary for inspiration. Visceral pleura- touching lung. Parietal pleura- not touching lungs. Intrapleural space  Inhalation: active process, diaphragm and external intercostal muscles.  Ventilation is primarily regulated by neurons (ventilation centers) in the medulla oblongata that rhythmically fire to cause regular contraction of respiratory muscles. Receptive to CO2 levels- chemoreceptors.  Vital capacity- amount of air we force out, residual volume- amount of air left over after vital capacity. VC and RV= TLC  Tidal volume- amount of air that naturally comes out with exhalation. Expiratory reserve volume- amount of air left after natural expulsion. Inspiratory air volume- amount of air we can take in after each breath.  Blood from right ventricle pulmonary arteriole (deoxygenated) alveolus (gas exchange)  capillary bed (oxygenated blood) pulmonary venule blood to left atrium Chapter 9: cardiovascular system Anatomy of the Cardiovascular System  Flow of blood: left atrium left ventricle aorta arteries arterioles capillaries venules veins Inferior/superior vena cava right atrium right ventricle pulmonary arteries lungs pulmonary veins--? Left atrium  There are portal systems-cappilary beds: hepatic: connecting the vasculatures of the intestines and the liver, hypophyseal- in brain, connecting pituitary and hypothalymus. The Heart  Valves: atrioventricular valves. Right AV: tricuspid valves, left AV: bicuspid or mitral valve. Each ventricle is protected by a semilunar valve with three cusps to prevent backflow. Right semilunar valve is called the pulmonary valve, bc it’s between right ventricle and pulmonary arteries. Left- aortic (LV, aorta) AV valves prevent backflow during contraction (systole) and SV prevent backflowduring relaxation (diastole).  Contraction: dusing systole. Cardiac output- total blood pumped by the ventricle in a minute- heart rate and stroke volume. o Impulse occurs at Sinoatrial node (60-100 signals per minute, wall of right atrium)  AV node (sits at the junction of the atria and ventricles)  bundle of His (in interventricular septum)  purkinje fibers (distributes the electrical signal through the ventricular muscle, causing ventricular contraction). o Pparasympathetic slows the heart rate via vagus nerve, sympathetic speeds it up. Blood Vessels  Sphygmomanometer measures blood pressure- measures gauge pressure in the systemic circulation. Arteries have more smooth muscle, both artiers and veins have the same composition Blood  55% plasma- liquid. 45% erythrocytes, leukocytes, platelets(all from hematopoietic stem cells in bone marrow  Erythrocytes: each ery contains about 250 million molecules of hemoglobin protein, each can bind up to 4 molecules of oxygen. Shape makes it easier to pass through tiny capillaries and also surface area for gas exchange.  Leukocytes: granulocytes ( neutrophilis, eosinphilis, and basophilis) are named because cytoplasmic are visible under microscopy. Involved in inflammatory reactions, allergies, pus formation, and destruction of bacteria and parasites. Agraulocytes- lymphocytes (specific immune response) and monocytes. B cells- antibodies, T cells- kill virally infected cells and activate other immune cells. Macrophages, microglia.  Platelets: derived from the breakup of cells known as megakaryocytes in the marrow. Blood Antigens  ABO group: you know this stuff already  Rh factor: dominant presence. Problems with success Rh+ births from Rh- mothers. Functions of the Cardiovascular System  Transport of gases: O2 and CO2 are transported in the blood. Biding or releasing of O2 from heme is a redox rxn. One O2 binds, changes shape, cgreater affinity, all on, then one off, changes shape, less affinity-cooperative binding. Bohr effect- lower pH shifts oxygen dissociation curve to the right (running a race). Carbonic acid-bicarbonate ion pair is the most important buffer for blood Transport of Nutrients and Wastes  Reread Clotting  Clotting factor- thromoblastin- converts prothrombin into thrombin, which helps from its coenzymatic factors, calcium, and vitamin K . Then converts fibrinogen into fibrin Chapter 10: The Immune System Anatomy  Innate immune system: (non specific) contains antimicrobial molecules and various phagocytes. Dendritic cells and macrophages also activate an inflammatory response, secreting proteins called cytokines that trigger an influx of defense cells from the blood.  Adaptive immune system: B cells and T cells. B cells attach antibody tags, T Cells recognize them and attack, and trigger formation of other T cells. And have memory cells. Humoral immunity- driven by B cells. Cell mediated immunity- t cells  Autoimmunity- attack itself Nonspecific Defense  Macrophages will phagocytize foreign particles that made it past the skin. They will be called to a site on inflammation by chemicals such as histamine, which causes vasodilation and allows macrophages to move out of the blood stream into the tissue. Immune cells that have been infected by particles produce interferon that prevents viral replication and dispersion (nonspecific). List of cells pg. 218 Humoral Immunity (B cells)  Production of antibodies, may take up to a week. Antibodies are produced by B cells which originated in bone marrow and matured in spleen and lymph nodes. Once they bind to a specific site, they might either attract more leukocytes or clump together to form a large insoluble complex to be phagocytized. Antigen-binding region. Constant region- recruitment of other immune modulators. Plasma cells produce large amounts of antibody, whereas memory cells stay in the lymph nodes for use upon being re-exposed to the same antigen. Primary response.; secondary response. Cell-mediated Immunity (T cells)  Mature in the thymus. Helper t cells (T4 cells, express CD4 cell surface protein, coordinate the immune response by secreting chemicals known as lymphokines. , suppressor t cells, killer (cytotoxic) t cells( T8 Cells, CD8, which is capable of directly killing virally infected cells by secreting toxic chemicals. . The loss of these cells Immunization  Reread if you wanna. Not much was said. Lymphatic System  Made with vessels that are bigger as you get closer to the heart. Venous vessels. Chapter 11 Homeostasis The Kidneys  Nephron- functional unit of the kidney  Structure- cortex- outermost, medulla- immediately under.  Glomerus- group of afferent arterioles. Bowman’s capsule proximal convoluted tubule, descending and ascending limbs of the loop of Henle, distal convoluted tubule, collecting duct.  Osmoregulation basics- Filtration: glomerulus. 20% of blood passed through the glomerulus is filteresd into the Bowman’s space. Collected fluid- filtrate, similar to blood but does not contain proteins or cells. Secretion: salts, acids, bases, and urea into the tubule by both active and apssive transport. Reabsorption: waste not, want not, can reuptake some things id they are necessary i.e. glucose and amino acids.  Nephron function- o Selective permeabilty: proximal and distal tubules are responsible for reabsorption of most substances including water. Asending and descending limbs of the of the loop of Henle and the collectuing duct are a bit more selective. Descending limb is permeable to water not salt, and the ascending limb is permeable to salt not water. Collecting duct permeability depends on heat and whatnot. o Osmolarity gradient- of the interstitium (tissue surrounding the tubule). Countercurrent multiplier system. Osmolarity in cortex is about the same as the that in the blood and remains at level (normally). Descend deeper into the medulla, osmlarity in the interstitium can range from isotonic with blood to four times more concentrated (when trying to conserve water) o Flow of Filtrate- diagram pg. 236  Hormonal Regulation- AntiDiuretic Hormone and adosterone alter permeability of the collecting duct in the endocrine system. o Aldosterone- steroid secreted by the adrenal cortex in response to decreased blood volume. It’s released in response to an increase in agniotensin, which is postively regulated by renin. Alters the ability of the collecting duct to reabsorb sodium. Also increase potassium excretion. o ADH- allows more water to be reabosrbed by making the cell junctions of the duct leaky. Made by the hypothalymus, stored in the posterior pituitary. Alcohol and caffeine both inhibit ADG, and lead to frequent excretion of dilute urine.  Excretion- anything that still didn’t leave the tubule. Collecting duct renal pelvis  (urea, uric acid, excess ions) ureter  bladder (stored)  urethra. The Liver  Produces bile. Responsible for assisting with blood glucose regulation and the elimination of nitrogen waste through urea. Nutriets absorbed during digestion are delivered to the liver through the hepatic protal vein.  Can make new glucose from a variety of precursors through glucongenesis. Nitrgogenous waste products. If not enough carbs, amino acids do cellular respiration, but they must undergo deamination (removal of the amino group) , then the liver combines with the CO2 to create urea.  Detoxification, storage of vitamins and cofactors, destruction of old erythrocytes, synthesis of bile, syn of various blood proteins, defense against antigents, beta- oxidation of fatty acids to ketons, interconversaion of carbs, fats and amino acids. Large Intestine  Excrete salts such as calcium and iron The Skin  Strutcutre- diagram pg. 240  Function: protection, ultra violet protection (mleanocytes, melanin), thermoregulation in endotherms.  Thermoregulation is achieved by vasodilation, vasoconstriction, and sweating. Endotherms- animals with their own, constant internal temperature. Ectoerherms- snakes and whatnot. Torpor, aestivate (summer), hibernate (winter) – lower metaboilc rate, heart ratem and respiration. Chapter 12 The Endocrine System Anatomy/ Glands  Autocrine- the cell releasing something is stimulated. Paracrine, neighboring cell is stimulated. Endocrine- action at a distance.  Endocrine- diagram pg. 252  Hormones in the form of peptides and steoids  Hypothalamus- head of pituitary gland. Negative feedback. o Anterior pituitary: hypothalamus secretes compounds into the hypophyseal portal system (pituitary). Hypo portal blood stream  pituitary stalk anterior pit.: gonadotropin- releasing hormone (GnRH), Follice-stimulating hormone (FSH), leuteinizing hormone (LH), growth hrmone-releasing hormone (GHRH) with Growth Hormone (GH), prolactin inhibitory factory (PIF), (Thyroid-releasing hormone (TRH), Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF), adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH). Greater the amount from hypo, greater amount released except for PIF. o Posterior pituitary- oxycotocin and AntiDieurtic Hormone.  Pituitary- direct (bind to receptors on their target organs and have a direct effect) or tropic (bind to receptors on an organ, but cause a release of effector hormones) hormone roles. Direct: Flat tropic: PEG o Direct hormones- acromegaly, giganticism, dwarfism-GH. o Tropic hormones- ACTH is regulated by CRF- it induces the adrenal cortex to release glucocorticoids. o Posterior pituitary- contains nerve terminals of neurons whose bodies are in the hypothalamus.  Thyroid Gland- controlled by pit’s TSH and hypo’s TRH. Basal metabolic rate (thyroxine and triiodothyronine) and calcium homeostasis (calcitonin). o Thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3): numbers correspond to iodine atoms attatched. Reset basal metabolic rate of the body by making energy production more or less efficient, as well as altering the utilization of glucose and fatty acids. Increased T3/ T4 increased cellular respiration and greater protein/fatty acid turnover by speeding up synthesis and degradation of the compounds. High plasma levels decreased TSH/TRH synthesis. Deficiency in iodine or inflammation of the thyroid hypothyroidism (lethargy, weight gain, cold intolerance). Hyperthyroidism- opposite. Goiter- thyroids enlarge. o Calcitonin- follicular cells- thyroid hormone, and C-cells produce calcitonin- decrease plasma calcium levels in 3 ways: increase excretion from kidneys, decrease absorption from gut, increase storage from bone.  Parathyroid glands- produces parathyroid hormone (PTH)- antagonist hormone to calcitonin.  Adrenal glands- on top of kidneys o adrenal cortex: secretes corticosteroids in response to ACTH stimulation from the anterior pituitary, which responds from CRF from hypothalamus.  Glucocorticoids- regulated glucose and affect protein metabolism. Cortisol and cortisone- raise blood sugar by increasing gluconeogenesis and decrease protein synthesis. Decrease inflammation and immuniological response. Stress hormone o Mineralcorticouds: aldosterone- increase reabsorption of sodium, and therefore water. Increase sodium expansion of blood volume and higher blood pressure. Net result: potassium and hydrogen released from body via urine. Alderosterone under the control of renin-angiotensin- aldosterone. Decreased blood volume causes the juxtaglomerular cells of the kidney to secrete renin, which cleaves an inactive plasma protein angiotensinogen to its active form, angiotensin I which converts to angiotensin II, whch stimulates adreanal cortex. Negative feedback o Cortical sex hormones: making male sex hormones (androgens). o Adrenal medulla: fight or flight sympathetic nervous system hormones: epinephrine/ norepinephrine. Hormones belong to a larger class called catecholamines. Epine- increase conversion of glycogen back to glucose to utilize for energy.  Pancreas- islets of Langerhans. Alpha, beta, delta cells: glucagon, insulin, somatostatin. o Glucagon: CCK and gastrin will increase glucagon release from alpha cells. Proteins and fats break down and form glucose- glucogenesis. o Insulin: makes muscles and liver cells take up glucse and store it for later use. Anabolic process- fat and protein synthesis. Will increase hypoglycemia or diabetes mellitus (hyper glycemia)polyuria- increased urination, polydipsia- increased thirst. Type I- autoimmune destruction of beta cells- little to no insulin produced. Type II- body resists effects of insulin as a receptor (Caused by high sugar diets) o Somatosatin- inhibitor of both glucagon and insulin. High blood glucose and amino acids concentrations stimulate it.  Testes- FSh stimulates steorli cells and is necessary for sperm maturation, LH causes interstitial cells to prduce testosterone.  Ovaries- o Hormones: estrogen- respond to elevated FSH and LH, are responsible for the development of seconday female sex traits and thickening of the endometrium. Secreted by the ovarian follicles and corpus luteum. Progesterone- secreted in response to LH stimulation from the ant pit. Development/maintenance of endometrium. o Menstral cycle:  Follicular phase- begins when menstrual flow (which sheds uterine lining) stops. GnRH secretion from the hypothalamus increases in response to the lower levels of estrogen and progesterone. Higher GnRH concentrations, higher secretions of FSH and LH.  Ovulation- Surge in LH induces ovulation- release of ovum from ovary into the abdominal cavity. Estrogen eventually has a pasotive feedback with GnRH, LH, FSH.  Luteal phase- after ovulation, the LH causes the ruptured follicle to form the corpus luteum. The corpus luteum secretes progesterone.  Menstruation- if implanation doesn’t occur, human chorionic gonadotropin will not be mas luteum, progesterone levels decline and the uterine lining is sloughed off.  Pregnancy- if fertilization has occurred, the corpus leutum will be maintained by the presence of hCG, which is secreted by blastocyst.  Menopause- decrease responsiveness of ovaries to LH and FSH.  Pineal gland- secretes melatonin-circadian rhythms.  Other endocrine glands- kidney produces erythropoietin, which stimulates bone marrow to increase production of RBC- for low oxygen levels. Heart releases Atrial Natriuretic Peptide- to regulate salt and water balance. Thymus releases thymosin, T- cell development and differentiation. Mechanisms of Hormone Action  Peptide hormones- go to Golgi, are released by exocytosis. Changed so they cannot cross the phospholipid cell membrane, but bind to receptors on the exterior cell surface- first messengers.  stimulate production of second messengers (cAMP)- adenylate cyclase. Signaling cascade- connection between hormone at the surface and the effect brought by cAMP within the cell. There is a possibility for amplification- one hormone may bind to multiple receptors before degraded. cAMP terminated by phosphodiesterase.  Steroids- derived from cholesterol. Nonpolar. Upon binding to a recptor, they dimerize (pair up with another receptor-hormone complex) the dimer then can bind to DNA and alter its transcription.  Amino acid derivatives- epine, norepine, thyroxine. Chapter 13- The Nervous System Neurons  Myelin covering is to prevent signal loss. Myelin is produced by oligodendrocytes in the CNS And Schwann cells in the periphery.  Resting potential- -70mV on the inside. Na+/K+ ATPase- 3 Nas for 3 Ks.  Action potential initiation: depolarization and hyperpolarization occur at action hillock. Depolarized to axon value (-55 to -45) action potential will occur. Starts with NA+s movement into the cell via chemical and electirical gradient (+35 mV). This triggers potassium to move out of cell to restore neutral charge- repolarization. Refractory period- absolute/ relative- greater stimulus needed b/c membrane is starting from a potential more negative than the resting value.  Impulse propagation: movement of a signal down a neuron. Salutatory conduction- transmission only at nodes of ranvier. Synapse  Effector cell- presynaptic terminal in muscle or gland cells. Most synapses are chemical- neurotransmitters. Neurotransmitters either broken down or reuptake. Organization of Vertebrate Nervous System  afferent neurons- neurons that carry information from periphery to brain and spinal cord., efferent- work in opposite direction. Interneurons- work in local circuits. Cluster of cells in PNS- ganglia, in CNS- nuclei.  Central Nervous System: o brain- gray matter- unmyelinated, white matter- myelinated.  Forebrain- telencephalon (contains cerebral cortex) diencephalon- (thalamus, hypothalamus) frontal, parietal, occipital, temporal.  Midbrain- midway point between more peripheral structures and the forebrain. Passes sensory and visual information to forebrain, receives motor info from fore to hindbrain.  Hindbrain- cerebellum, pons, medulla. Cerebellum- quality control agent, checks that motor signals sent from the cortex is in agreement with the sensory information coming from the body. o Spinal cord- cervical, thoracic, lumbar, sacral. Protected by the vertebral column.  Peripheral nervous system o Somatic system: voluntary movement. Reflex arcs- monosynaptic: knee jerk /polysynaptic: at least one interneuron between sensory and motor neurons. Ex. Stepping on a tack- withdrawal reflex. o Autonomic nervous system: two neuron system- pre/postganglionic.  Sympathetic: fight or flight. pre(use acetylcholine) /postganglionic (use norepinephrine).  Parasympathetic: calm. Special Senses  Sensory neurons come in three varities: interoceptors (internal: blood, pH, CO2 level in blood), propricoeptors( position sense body in a dark room), exteroceptors (external- light, sound, touch, pain). Nocieptors sense pain and relay that information to the brain.  The eye: covered by a thick layer- sclera. Supplied with nutrients and oxygen by choroid. Retina- inner most layer of the eye, which contains photoreceptors. Cornea pupil iris (alters dilation of pupil) lens. Ciliary muscles adjust thickness of lens. Rods- rhodopsin pigment: black and white images/ low intensity illumination, cones- different wavelengths- red, blue, green. After excitation, photorecptors send signal to bipolar cells retinal ganglion cells. Axons of ganglion cells bundle to form optic nerve.  The ear: outer ear tympanic membrane middle ear (malleus, incus, stapes) oval window fluid filled inner ear (cochlea and semicircular canals.) The movement of the ossivles on the oval window creates fluid waves in the inner ear that depolarize the hair cells od the cochlea. Balance- three semicircular canals filled with fluid called endolymph- mvt through canals puts pressure on hair cells.  Chemical Senses- reread. o taste: Chapter 14: Genetics Mendelian Genetics First law of segregation: genes exist in alternative forms, an organism has two alleles for each genes, one inherited from each parent. The two alleles segregate during meiosis, result in gametes that carry only one allele for any inherited trait. If two alleles in an individual organism are different, only one will be fully expressed, and the other will be silent. The expressed allele is said to be dominant, the silent- recessive. Homo/heterozygous. o Monohybrid cross: one trait being studied. P-arent generation. Filial- f generation. o Punnet square- genotype/phenotype. Second Law: Law of Independent Assortment: each gene inheritance is independent of the inheritance of other genes. (getting brown eyes doesn’t affect getting black hair) o Dihybrid cross: TtPP vs TtPp and box headings: TP, tP, Tp, tp Chromosomal Theory of Inheritance Segregation and Independent Assortment: occurs during meiosis 1, when sister chromatids become haploid cells. Nonindependent Assortment and Genetic Linkage: two genes closely related (distance from one another on a chromosome) may be inherited together. Recombination Frequencies: Genetic Mapping: unlinking happens via crossing over. If recombination occurred between sister chromatids, then no change in linkage would be observed because the chromatids are genetically linked. Percentage unit of recombinant frequencies correspond to distance units. Variations on Mendelian Genetics: o Incomplete dominance: mixture of the two parental phenotypes. (pink flower) o Codominance: two requirements- must be multiple coding alleles for a gene, more than one of the alleles must be dominant. Expression of both phenotypes. o Penetrance and expressivity. Penetrance- number of people in a population carrying the allele who actually ecpress the phenotype. Huntington- fully penetrant. High penetrant. Expressivity- various expression of disease symptoms despite identical genotypes. o Inherited disorders: Pedigree analysis. Chromosomal Abberations Numerical Abnormalities: anuepolidy- not 46 chroms. Nondisjunction. XO- Turner’s Syndrome- short, sterile, few to no secondary female characteristics. XXX- metafemales, superfemales. XXY- Klinefelter male- tall male with breasts, undescended testes, sterile. Chromosomal breakage: deletion, duplication, translocation, inversion. Chapter 16: Evolution Theories of Evolution   Lamarck’s Inheritance of Acquired Characteristics Theory: use and disuse.  Acquired characteristics.   Darwin’s Theory of Natural Selection: On the Origin of Species; 1859.  o Organisms produce offspring, few of which survive to maturity o  Chance variations within a population may be inheritable. If the variations give the an organism a slight survival advantage, they are favorable. o Individuals with a greater preponderance of these favorable variations are  more likely to survive to reproductive age and produce offspring­ natural  selection (increase in favorable traits).  Seprataion of favorable traits will  result in separate species. Fitness­ reproductive success of an individual.   Neo­Darwinism (Modern Synthesis): differential reproduction, gene pool.  Populations, not species nor individuals evolve.   Punctuated Equilibrium: Niles Elderedge and Stephen Jay Gould. Changes in  species occur abruptly.  Evidence of Evolution  Paleontology: chronological succession of species in the fossil record.  Biogeography: divergence  Comparative anatomy: Homologous structure­ same structure, different function,  same ancestry, and divergent evolution.  Analogous structures: convergent  evolution, different structure, and same function. Vestigial structures.  Comparative Embryology:   Molecular biology:  Genetic Basis of Evolution  Hardy­Weinberg Equilibrium: genetic frequency­ how often an allele appears in a population.   Criteria for an unchanging population: large population, no mutations, mating  between individuals is random, there is no migrations/ immigrations. Genes are  all equally successful at reproducing. – hardy weingberg equilibrium. p=  dominant allele, q= recessive. Frequency of alleles:  P+q=1, frequency of  different genotypes:  p  (TT)+ 2pq (Tt)+ q (tt) = 1 Twice as many alleles in a  population than humans.   Microevolution:  Natural selection­ favorable traits naturally live on. Mutation­  change allele frequencies, shifting gene equilibria. Assortive mating. Genetic  drift­ changes in composition in gene pool due to chance, founder effect, small  populations. Gene flow­ migration of individuals between population will result  in a loss or gain of genes change  in population gene pool.  Modes in Natural Selection   Stabilizing selection­ keeps phenotypes in a specific range.   Directional selection­ favors one side over another  Disruptive­ both extreme phenotypes are selected over the norm. Altruistic Behavior   Kin selection: organisms will behave altruistically when they feel closely related  to successfully reproducing organisms. Inclusive fitness Speciation  The emergence of a new species, a group of individuals who can interbreed freely with each other, but not with members of other species. Reproductive isolation.  o Prezygotic­ prevent formation of zygote. Temporal isolation­ breed during different seasons, times of day, etc. ecological isolation­ same territory but different habitats, rarely meet, rarely mate. Behavioral isolation: member  of two species are not sexually attracted to each other b/c of pheromones  or courtship displays. Reproductive isolation: incompatible genetalia.  Gametic isolation: intercourse can occur, but fertilization cannot.  o Postzygotic­ fertilization can occur, but sterile offspring (mule). Hybrid  inviability­ genetic incompatibilities between two species abort hybrid  zygote development, even if fertilization occurs. Hybrid sterility. Hybrid  breakdown­  Adaptive Radiation: When a single ancestral species gives rise to a number of  different speices. Each species diverges to the point that it is able to occupy an  ecological niche.  Patterns of Evolution:   Convergent, divergent, parallel­ related species in similar ways for a long period  of time in response to analogous environmental selection pressues.  Chapter 15­ Molecular Genetics DNA  Deoxyribose sugar: 3’ OH, 5’ OH, 2’­ H Adenine+  guanine= purine (double ring) cytosine+ thymine= pyrmidine (single ring). Triple hydrogen bond C and G.  antiparallel strands 5’ 3’ and 3’  5’.  DNA replication : semi conservative replication.  o Origin of replication: origins of replication, replication forks.  o Unwinding and initiation: helicase: unwinds the helix. Single stranded  binding proteins enter the stablalize DNA strands and prevent from  rewinding. DNA gyrase relieves overwound DNA by introducing negative super coils which helps relieve strain. DNA polymerase adds nucleotides  to the growing strand. Needs an RNA primer to know where to being.  Primase generates an RNA primer.  o Synthesis: 5’ 3’ direction (this is the direction of the strand that is being  coded, the leading strand). Okazaki fragments are things. DNA ligase­  bridges gap between Okazaki fragments.   RNA  Ribose sugar, single stranded, uracil.  Found in nucleus and cytoplasm.   mRNA­ created during transcription. Carries genetic message from rhw nucleus  to the cytoplasm. Monocistronic.   tRNA­ liknks new amino acids.   rRNA­ synthesized in nucleolus, imperative for protein formation in cytoplasm.   Heterogenous nuclear RNA­ directly coded from parent strand. Protein Synthesis   Transcription: template strand= antisense strand. RNA polymerase catalyzes  RNA transcription.   Post­transcriptional processing:   hnRNA­ needs 5’­ guanosyl cap to stabilize the starting end of transcription, and a poly A tail on the 3’. Introns cut out, exons expressed.   Translation o tRNA­ anticodon, tRNA synthetase, amino­tRNA complex. Pg. 353 o Ribosomes­ A site binds P site holds for elongation.  o Polypeptide synthesis  Initiation: methionine tRNA, P site.   Elongation­ peptidyl transferase catalyzes the formation of a  peptide bond. Reread  Termination: UGA, UAA, UAG. A release factor will then bind to  A site.   Post­translational Modifications:   Mutations: point mutation, silent mutation. Missense mutation  (first or second code). Frameshift. Mutagenesis, transposons.  Viral Genetics   DNA or RNA, single or double stranded.   Infection of host: only infect cells that have receptors that recognize the viruses  protein coat (capsid).   FNA Replication and Transcription:  o DNA Containing Viruses: enter the nucles and make use of the DNA and  RNA polymerases found there without any extra work. A few replicate in  the cytoplasm o RNA containing viruses: cytoplasm. Bring RNA Replicase. Retroviruses:  create DNA from RNA using reverse transcriptase. Only way to remove it  is by killing the cell.   Translation and Progeny Assembly: virons, with help of ribosomes, tRNA, amino  acids and enzymes of the host.   Progeny release:  apoptosis, extrusion, productive ccle.   Bacteriophage: target bacteria. Lytic­ makes use of cell and then it lyses, virulent  bacteria. and lysogenic cycle­ integrate into host genome, environmental factors  change it from lyso to lytic cycle. Superinfection­ plus side. Bacterial Genetics  Bacterial Genome polycestronic  Replication: 


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

25 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Jim McGreen Ohio University

"Knowing I can count on the Elite Notetaker in my class allows me to focus on what the professor is saying instead of just scribbling notes the whole time and falling behind."

Amaris Trozzo George Washington University

"I made $350 in just two days after posting my first study guide."

Bentley McCaw University of Florida

"I was shooting for a perfect 4.0 GPA this semester. Having StudySoup as a study aid was critical to helping me achieve my goal...and I nailed it!"

Parker Thompson 500 Startups

"It's a great way for students to improve their educational experience and it seemed like a product that everybody wants, so all the people participating are winning."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.