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Week 1 Notes

by: Gabrielle E Meis

Week 1 Notes CHEM:1110 Principles of Chemistry I

Gabrielle E Meis

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These notes cover studying tips and atomic theory.
CHEM:1110 Principles of Chemistry I
Russel Larson, Gary W. Small, Mishtu Dey, Scott R. Daly, Shonda Monette
Class Notes
General Chemistry, Chemistry
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Gabrielle E Meis on Monday August 22, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CHEM:1110 Principles of Chemistry I at University of Iowa taught by Russel Larson, Gary W. Small, Mishtu Dey, Scott R. Daly, Shonda Monette in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 4 views. For similar materials see CHEM:1110 Principles of Chemistry I in Chemistry at University of Iowa.

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Date Created: 08/22/16
Friday, August 26, 2016 ____________________________________________________________________________ Studying - http:/ - Discussion, Practice Doing, Teach Others Principles of Chem Chapter 2 ____________________________________________________________________________ Atoms - Individuals • Democritus - Greek philosopher (460-370 BC): Matter is made of tiny indivisible particles (atomos meaning indivisible) • John Dalton (1766-1844 CE) - starting to combine and mix elements together to run various reactions - Observed and constructed a set of postulates for atomic theory of matter based off of empirical data • 1. Elements are composed of small particles called atoms. • Atoms of an element are identical to one another. (NOW WE KNOW THIS IS WRONG) • Chemical reactions rearrange atoms, but do not alter them. • Compounds are formed by combining atoms in fixed integer ratios. - “You either have an atom or you don’t.” - Experiments to show not all atoms are identical • Cathode Ray Tube (1897) -holds a vacuum -If you applied the voltage to the anode (positively charged electrode, a ray would come out and light up the end of the tube) •These rays weren’t light. (Knew it wasn’t light 1 Friday, August 26, 2016 because it didn’t pass through the fluorescent screen) • Applied an electric/magnetic field on the outside of the tube and could cause ray to change directions. - Varied strength of fields to determine the ratio of mass/charge of the particles (determined cathode rays are negatively charged particles that had mass) - Cathode rays because the negative electrode is the cathode. • Can be steered around by electric plates. • Millikan’s Oil Drop - Studying static electricity - had something to do with building up an electric charge on a surface -Decided to build up static charge on small particles to measure how charged the particles were -Used an “atomizer” that could take a liquid and make a very fine mist of particles (with oil) Added a small hole in the positively charged plate • enough for only one oil drop to fit through. Oil drawn to + plate and then pulled down by gravity. - Interesting part of experiment occurs once through the hole. • If the droplet carried static electricity, the droplet itself is negatively charged. - Thus negatively charged plate repels the oil and can apply just enough force so the electrical force pushing the droplet up directly offsets the gravitational force thus droplet floats in midair. - Radiation will light up the droplets so they can be viewed through the microscope. • Turn up the voltage and turn up the voltage and “catch one droplet to stop” and then read the voltage - All particles have their own voltage - have to catch lots of them one at a time 2 Friday, August 26, 2016 - Estimate size of particle - quantitatively determine the size of the droplet. Can determine the exact charge from the voltage. - FOUND ALL integral multiples to be 1.602x10^-19 C (:smallest fundamental unit of charge) - called the electron, could determine electron mass. - ATOMS MUST BE COMPOSED OF SMALLER PARTICLES CALLED ELECTRONS :) - … but lots of matter is not charged, thus there must be positively charged particles - Models - all models should provide predictive power • J.J. Thomson (1856 -1940 CE) “plum-pudding” model of the atom. (CHEATUM - chocolate chip cookie model of the atom) - Positive charge over sphere and then negative electrons scattered randomly • Could pluck individual electrons from the inside of the sphere • Rutherford’s Scattering Experiment (Entire experiment launched particle physics and arguably one of the greatest experiments in chemistry) -Create a beam of positively charged atoms and shoot them at a wall of a pure element (Used very thin gold foil & alpha particles) •Prediction: Most particles should come bouncing back if Thomson model is correct. •Outcome: the opposite - most of the particles went straight through the foil (if they were deflected they were backward deflected) -Concluded atoms were mostly empty space with a tiny dense sphere of positive charge called the nucleus - around nucleus (relatively far away) there would be particles of negative charge (almost all mass would be in the nucleus) 3 Friday, August 26, 2016 - Alpha particles could pass straight through electron spaces but repeled from nucleus - Electrons circle nucleus in an orbit & radiate light and as they lose energy they collapse in on the nucleus • Constructed model with no possible way it could be right, (But it essentially was) - Modern Atomic Structure • Nucleus (10^-4 Å) Electron (1-5 Å) • • Proton - C = +1.602 x 10-19 C (+1), m = 1.673x10^-27 kg (1.0073 amu) • Electron - C = -1.602 x 10-19 C (-1), m = 9.09x10^-31 kg (5.486x10^-4 amu) • Neutron - C = 0C, m = 1.675x10^-27 kg (1.0087 amu) • 1 amu = 1.66054x10^-27 kg Isotopes - Isotopes: all atoms with the same number of protons, but different numbers of neutrons. - Atomic number (Z): number of protons - Mass number (A): the number of protons + neutrons - Isotopic Symbol: A/Z X or A X 90/38 Sr, Strontium -90 • - Atomic weight: average atomic mass of all of the isotopes of an element weighted by the relative abundance (on Earth) of each isotope expressed in amu. • Naturally occurring carbon consists of a mixture of isotopes, 12 C (98.89%) and 13 C (1.11%) 4 Monday, August 29, 2016 Lecture Day 4 Periodic Table Compounds (Molecular formula, empirical formula, structural formula, ionic compound, molecular compound) - Ions • Cations - positive charge, anions - negative charge (elements in the same group tend to have ions of the same charge) • Metal ions can have more than one charge state - Typically transition metals - Different charge states are “oxidations states” • Roman numerals indicate the oxidation state - May also be identified as -ous or -ic • Fe2+ iron(II) or ferrous ion Cu+ copper(I) or cuprous ion • Fe3+ iron(III) or ferric ion Cu+ copper(II) or cupric ion • Polyatomic Ions = ions composed of more than one atom - must be memorized pg. 63, 66 • Ionic Compound - combinations of metals with nonmetals, total charge of zero 1 Monday, August 29, 2016 Nomenclature - Naming ionic compounds • Metals with multiple oxidation states - Metal name (oxidation state as Roman numeral) + nonmetal root with -ide suffix • Monatomic cation(metal) + monatomic anion(nonmetal) - Metals with only one oxidation sate - Group1A, 2A, Al3+, Zn2+, Ag+ - Metal name + nonmetal root with -ide suffix • Polyatomic cations + anions - name by using metal name + polyatomic name - Oxyanions - Naming Acids • Anion + nH+ dissociate into anion and H+ in water - Anions ending in -ide hydro+root+ic acid • • Ex. HCl(aq) = hydrochloric acid - Anions ending in - ate • Anion + ic acid - ex. HClO4 - perchloric acid - Anions ending in -ite • Anion + ous acid - Ex. HClO - hypochlorous acid - Naming inorganic molecular compounds • nonmetal + nonmetal • Prefix + first element prefix+sexond element+ide - Ex. N2O4 - dinitrogen tetroxide CO2 - carbon dioxide 2 Monday, August 29, 2016 - Naming simple organic molecular compounds • Hydrocarbons: compounds of C and H • Prefixes - One carbon - meth- - two carbon - eth- - Three carbons - prop- 3


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