POL 1080 - Lecture Notes 8.23.16
POL 1080 - Lecture Notes 8.23.16 POL 1080
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Melanie Basinger on Monday August 22, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to POL 1080 at University of Cincinnati taught by Ivan Ivanov in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 9 views. For similar materials see Introduction to International Relations in Political Science at University of Cincinnati.
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Date Created: 08/22/16
Introduction to International Relations POL 1080, University of Cincinnati, Professor Ivan IvanovthAssigned textbook: Perspectives on International Relations (5 edition) by Henry R. Nau Introduction: Lecture Notes, 8/23/16 Nature of International Relations An example with current events would be what is happening in Turkey There was an attempted / failed coup to try and overtake the current government o The current president of Turkey, Erdogan, has been president for the past 15 years He is very powerful and controls the media among many other things He describes himself as a ‘modern Islamic’ which means that he connects Islam with modern Western ideals, such as democracy and civil rights o Gülen, a clerk who currently lives in Pennsylvania, and Erdogan used to be “BFF’s” until Gülen left Turkey in a self – imposed exile. Gülen still has a lot of influence in Turkey and he runs a movement to return Turkey to a more secular government as shown in the modern Turkish constitution o Erdogan believes that Gülen was responsible to try and remove him from power and now wants to ‘try’ him for treason (basically he wants to execute him) Erdogan called Gülen an SOB and wants him extradited back to Turkey Erdogan believes the Gülen is his ‘primary’ threat so to speak. Meaning that Gülen is the most dangerous thing to himself (Erdogan) and his country. Basically Erdogan is slightly bipolar and now one really knows what he is thinking or why he is thinking it. Another example of this would be the refugee crisis from Syria and ISIS in general. o In order to easily move the refuges back to their home country once the war in over and their homeland is safe, they have to be contained and kept in one general area (refugee camps) Europe does not want any more refugees and many European countries are building walls to prevent refugees from coming into their country. In an effort to keep the refugees out of Europe, the EU asked Erdogan to keep them in Turkey so it would be easier to relocate them back to their own countries once the war was done. Erdogan decided that he had some room to negotiate and is trying to get something for himself out of this. He asked the EU to allow Turkish citizens to travel to any EU country without a VISA. The EU comes back and tells Erdogan to stop attacking the Kurdish people and the argument just continues back and forth. o In the next coming weeks, we could see either an influx of refugees heading to European countries or Erdogan and the EU coming to a compromise What events matter the most? History shows patterns of occurrence. 2 Logics Causality Constitutive Logic A causes B ideas, religion, culture Ex: threat perception ex: the idea of America Rationalist method (or the logic of consequences) Constructivist method (logic of appropriateness) Correlation vs Causality Correlation: relationship between 2 variables, but one does not cause another Ex: eating ice cream and drowning o Both events occur in warm weather but eating ice cream does not cause you to drown Causality: event A causes event B Ex: drinking and being in a car accident o Drinking impairs your ability to drive and can cause you to be in a car accident Other Important Terms Endogenous variables: Event A causes event B, but event A and event B both cause event C Process Tracing: tracing events over a long period of time Counterfactuals: what would happen if a certain event would have never happened (alternative history) Ex: what would happen if Hitler had never come into power? Introduction to International Relations POL 1080, University of Cincinnati, Professor Ivan Ivanov, Assigned th textbook: Perspectives on International Relations (5 edition) by Henry R. Nau Introduction (Pages 1 – 28) Book Notes KEY TERMS Level of Analysis: where forces are coming from that cause or continue a conflict Three Types/Kinds o Systemic or external: forces from outside a specific region, country, or individual o Domestic or internal: forces from inside a specific region, country, or individual o Individuals or groups Perspective: explains what the underlying cause of these forces is, otherwise known as the “issue of theory” Realist Perspective: sees the world largely in terms of a struggle for relative power in which strong actors seek to dominate and weak actors seek to resist Liberal Perspective: emphasizes repetitive relationships and negations, establishing patterns or institutions for resolving international conflicts Identity Perspective: emphasizes the casual importance of the ideas and identities of actors, which motivate their use of power and negotiations Critical Theory Perspective: focuses on deeply embedded forces from all perspectives and levels of analysis Ideal Types: perspectives or simplified characterizations of theories that emphasize the most important aspects of reality, not all of its intricacies and variations Causal Arrows: indicates which perspective or level of analysis dominates or controls the other perspectives or levels of analysis. Methods: rules for testing theories against facts Rationalist Methods: methods that disaggregate and explain events sequentially as on event preceding and causing a second event Constructivist Methods: see events as a whole as mutually causing or constituting on another rather than causing one another sequentially Causation: explaining events in terms of one another rather than just describing them Correlation: a situation in which one fact or event occurs in the same context as another fact or event but is not necessarily linked to or caused by it Exogenous Variables: autonomous factors that come from outside a theoretical model or system and that cannot be explained by the system Endogenous Variables: casual variables that are included in a theoretical model or framework Process Tracing: a method of connecting events in sequence to identify cause and effect Counterfactual Reasoning: method of testing claims for causality by asking what might have happened if one event had not occurred Judgement: broader assessment of what makes sense after one accumulates as many facts and tests as many perspectives as possible Ethics & Morality: standards of good conduct for human behavior Relativism: position that holds that truth and morality are relative to each individual or culture and that one should “live and let live” Universalism: position that holds that truth and morality are universal and cannot be adjusted to specific circumstances Pragmatism: idea that morality is proportionate to what is possible and causes the least harm
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