Psych 1101, Week 2 Notes, Week 3 Notes
Psych 1101, Week 2 Notes, Week 3 Notes Psyc 1101
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This 12 page Class Notes was uploaded by Hanna Notetaker on Monday August 22, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psyc 1101 at University of Georgia taught by Kara A. Dyckman in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 103 views. For similar materials see Elementary Psycology in Psychology (PSYC) at University of Georgia.
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Date Created: 08/22/16
Psych 1101- Chapter 1 Psychology >Def: The scientific study of behavior and mental processes *Breakdown of the definition -Scientific: Answering questions based off of information gathered through careful observation and data analysis -Behavior: Activities that you can observe -Mental Processes: Thoughts and emotions Psych Profession >Divided into two categories: -Basic Research: Information is gathered to find out what is happening and why -Applied Research: Applying what you find 4 Goals of Discipline of Psychology *This is specifically for behavioral psychology 1.Describe >Report what is being observed 2.Explain >Understand why people are behaving a certain way. -Can I explain their behavior? -Why are they acting this way? 3.Predict >If you can explain why, then you can predict future behaviors. 4.Control >Can I change this behavior? Roots of Psychology *Roots are based off of philosophy >Plato -He believed in nature (“truth and knowledge exists in the soul before birth”) >Aristotle -He believed in nurture (empiricism: “we know reality through perceptions, and we learn through experience”) *Everything is both nature and nurture >Rene Descartes -Dualism: the mind and body are two separate entities >Gustav Fechner -Physiological Psychology: the study of the physical ability to sense stimuli -Understanding how we process info >Wilhelm Wundt -The “father of psychology” -Created the first research laboratory -Introspection: present stimuli to participants and ask them to describe what they were feeling and thinking Current Perspectives in Psychology (Chart found in textbook as well) >Psychoanalytic -Freud >Behavioral (stimulus response) -Pavlov -Watson -Skinner >Humanistic (free-will to do anything) -Rogers -Maslow >Cognitive -Miller >Evolutionary -Darwin >Biological >Sociocultural -Vygotsky -Clark >Biopsychosocial Science and Psychology >Driven by critical thinking -Curiosity -Make yourself think: ask questions, wonder -Skepticism -Find out whether something is true or not -Humility -Accept that your previous findings are incorrect Pseudoscience >Coincidence; Does not necessarily mean anything >Ex: Numerology, Astrology Scientific Method (Curiosity) 1.Hypothesis- Make a prediction 2.Experiment 3.Analyze Data 4.Publish Results -Others will read and expand results Research >Variable: Anything that can change -Ex: Testing the effect of a drug- Give the drug to one group and a placebo to the other -Ex: How they perform, their reaction time >Population -All the members of the group you’re interested in >Sample -Since you cannot test everyone in a population, you take a sample -It represents the population >Informed Consent -Read and sign a consent form; Understand what they tell you -Tells you what you have to do, and you can choose whether or not you want to continue, everything is voluntary >Debriefing -Can’t tell you everything due to potential bias -Sharing info with participants after the study is concluded Descriptive Methods (Descriptive Research- describe what is already happening) >Naturalistic Observation -No interference >Laboratory Observation -Some degree of control >Case Study -Where you study one person individually -Person has an unusual characteristic >Survey -Participants fill out info, and researchers combine all the info to find general conclusion *Can’t state cause and effect, just describes Correlational Analysis >Correlational Method -A way to examine relationships among variables *Descriptive research only *Correlation does not prove causation >You do not know he direction of the relationship, only the cofactors -Ex: Low self-esteem could cause depression OR depression could cause low self-esteem >You can use a scatterplot to express the relationship between the two variables -Ex: Strong positive correlation, perfect positive correlation, no relationship, perfect negative correlation Psychological Research >Experiment -A type of research that manipulates a variable of interest (independent variable) to uncover cause and effect relationships >Independent Variable -What is manipulated >Dependent Variable -What you measure >Random Assignment -Controlling for other variables (interference) such as parental intelligence and environment -Participants have an equal chance of getting put in each group Experimental Method >Placebo -Fake treatment, given to members of the control group, that has no benefit, but is administered as if it does -The belief that the treatment will work makes the participant feel better (“thinking is believing”) Experimental Research: Experimental Method >Double-blind study -A type of study where neither the researchers who administer the independent variable nor the participants know what type to of treatment is being administered to who >Experimenter bias -Researchers’ expectations influence the outcome of the study Ethics in Psychological Research >Institutional Review Board (IRB) -Professional group that reviews the safety of participants -Approves research -There to protect participants >Common Ethical Guidelines 1.Rights and well-being of participants weighed against the study’s value 2.Informed Consent 3.Deception must be justified -Researchers can’t tell participants everything because it might affect their behavior 4.Participants can withdraw from the study at any time 5.Participants are protected from risks 6.Researcher must debrief participants 7.Data must remain confidential >Animal Research -Used to attempt to answer questions not obtainable through human research -Avoid exposure to unnecessary pain of suffering -Used in approximately 7% of psychological studies Chapter 2- Biology and Behavior The Last Frontier: From Bumps to Brain Scans (2.1) Neuroscience (Relatively new) >Study of the brain and nervous system Biological Psychology >How the brain and other biological systems influence human behavior Phrenology and Ablation >Phrenology (Pseudoscience) -Bumps on your skull determine certain characteristics about you >Ablation -Taking a certain piece of your brain out seeing how you function without it (usually done with rats) Looking at Brain Structure >CAT -A type of x-ray -Good for observing bones >MRI -Clearer picture than CAT/ x-rays -Good for observing the brain Watching Brain Activity >EEG -Electrodes are put on someone’s head, and electrical activity from their brain is measured while they are doing a certain task >PET -Uses radioactive tracers to check your body for diseases >fMRI (functional MRI) -You can look at brain activity from stimuli in an MRI machine Components of a Neuron >Dendrites branch off the cell body -Receives info >Axon (only one per neuron) -Messages go from the cell body to the terminal buds >Nodes of Ranvier -Gaps between the Myelin Sheath >Myelin Sheath -Most of our neurons are myelinated -Speeds communication -Insulates one neuron from another -Ex: MS is a result of an axon being demyelinated: communication slows, difficulty moving >Terminal Buds -Transmit messages to other neurons >Synapse -Gap between the end of one neuron (terminal bud) and the beginning of another (dendrites) Neurons and Neural Communication (2.2) Glia Cells >Greek for ‘glue’ >Glue of the nervous system, providing cohesion and support for the neurons Communications Within Neurons *Each neuron either fires an action potential or doesn’t >At rest, it is more negative inside the neuron than outside (Inside: -70mv) >Outside the neuron: Na+ (Sodium ions) and Cl- (Chlorine ions) >Concentration of ions makes it more negative inside than out >Inside: K+ (Potassium ions) >Depolarization: becoming less negative -Some channels have opened up, allowing Na+ (Sodium Ions) to come inside the neuron >Threshold of Activation: -55mv >Action Potential (AP) -At threshold, many Na+ channels will open up, allowing many Sodium Ions to come in. The inside will become more positive for a short period of time. -Exchange of ions all the way down the axon -Only occurs in the places that is not covered by the myelin sheath (at the Nodes of Ranvier) >What happens next? -AP reaches the terminal buttons/buds -Neurotransmitters are released into the synapse and bind to receiving dendrites How do neurons affect behavior? >They affect everything you do and think. The Supporting Systems >The brain needs supporting infrastructure to carry out orders and send important information received from outside -Central Nervous System (CNS) -Peripheral Nervous System (PNS) -Nerves: bundles of axons running through your body >Spinal Cord: Communication between the brain and the PNS >Sensory Neurons: Brings info from our environment to the spinal cord and brain >Motor Neurons: Info from the brain and spinal cord sent to muscles or glands >Interneurons: Neurons that connect to other neurons >Reflex Arc: Sensory neurons and motor neurons cause reflexive action The Brain >Two Hemispheres -Right: Controls the left side of the body; Integrates information -Left: Controls the right side of the body; Processes sequential info *Contralateral: This means that the left part of the brain controls the right side of the body and vice-versa >4 Lobes -Frontal: Executive function; planning, making decisions; doesn’t fully mature until early 20s -Motor cortex (located at the back of the frontal lobe): Stimuli causes muscles to move; Fine movements have more area in the cortex devoted to it (ex: facial movements compared to knee movement) -Parietal: Sensory and Spatial information -Somatosensory Cortex (located in the front of the parietal lobe): Receives info when you feel something -Occipital: Processes visual info -Temporal: Processes auditory info and language >Language Areas and the Brain (Located on the left side) -Broca’s Area -Wernicke Area >Hemispherectomy -Surgical removal of half of the brain -Exceptionally rare; Last resort >Callostomies (split-brain operation) -The right and left sides of the brain are disconnected -Corpus callosum: Band of axons that connect the two hemispheres; This is how the left side and the right side of the brain communicate
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