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Chemistry 1210: Week 1 Notes: Ch.1-2

by: Emily Notetaker

Chemistry 1210: Week 1 Notes: Ch.1-2 Chem 1210

Marketplace > Ohio State University > Chem 1210 > Chemistry 1210 Week 1 Notes Ch 1 2
Emily Notetaker
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These notes highlight everything that you need to know in both the book and in lecture. The information given will be on the next exam.
General Chem 1
Dr. Bartoszek-Loza
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Emily Notetaker on Monday August 22, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Chem 1210 at Ohio State University taught by Dr. Bartoszek-Loza in Summer 2016. Since its upload, it has received 166 views.


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Date Created: 08/22/16
Lecture 1 (Sections 1.1-1.5) Tuesday, August 23, 2016 10:51 PM Matter (1.2 - 1.3) • Matter - occupies space and has mass • Element: cannot be broken down (O, N, Na, Cl) ○ *molecule = 2 and atom = 1* ○ • Substance: definite chemical composition ○ Ionic (salt) ---> NaCl ○ Molecular ----> CH 3H 2H or C H2O6 O ,2and Cl 2 ○ • Phases: solid (s), liquid (l), gas (g), aqueous (aq) • Physical property: observe or measure without changing the identity, color, or boiling point • Chemical property: ability of a substance to change/ react (Fe in air) • Physical Change: Change of phase • Chemical Change: transform into a chemically different substance ○ • Law of constant composition:water mass is always 11% Hydrogen and 89% Oxygen Mixtures • Mixtures are a combination of two or more components in which each component retains its own identity ○ Homogeneous mixture - uniform (lemonade, air, chocolate milk) ○ Heterogeneous mixture - non-uniform (bacon, granite) • Separation: filter/evaporate, distill Measurement (1.4) • Intensive Properties ○ Properties that do not change when the amount changes ○ Melting point of ice, density • Extensive Properties ○ Properties that change when the amount of a substance changes ○ Energy produced burning gasoline • A measured quantity has both a number and a unit • Prefix ---> km - m - dm - cm - mm - um - nm Chapter 1 Page 1 • Prefix ---> km - m - dm - cm - mm - um - nm Measurement Uncertainty (1.5) • Exact numbers ○ 1 dozen = 12 eggs • Inexact numbers ○ Measured - 3.45 g, 25.77 mL  Last digit is uncertain (2.5 +/- 0.1 cm) • Precision ○ How closely individual measurements agree with eachother  You do not hit the bullseye, but you hit the same spot 3 times • Accuracy ○ How closely individual measurements agree with the "true"  You hit the bullseye once, but the other two arrows are around the target • Data and Error Analysis ○ Determinate error:  Read top vs. bottom of meniscus throughout experiment ○ Indeterminate error:  Estimate the last digit • Significant Figures ○ Multiplying/dividing  Always take the least number of significant figures ○ Adding/Subtracting  Always take the least amount of decimal places Dimensional Analysis (1.6) Chapter 1 Page 2 Section 1.6 Overview Wednesday, August 24, 2016 10:12 AM Dimensional Analysis(Pg. 27 -31) • In dimensional analysis units are multiplied together or divided into each other along with the numerical values. Equivalent units cancel each other out. ○ Conversion factor - a fraction whose numeratorand denominator are the same quantity expressed in different units.   "  Given unit x • It is often necessary to use several conversionfactors to solve a problem ○ Number of inches = Quiz 1 Info Thursday, August 25, 2016 2:33 PM The quiz will be on chapter 1, the notes, and the homework. Sections 2.1 - 2.4 Overview Wednesday, August 24, 2016 10:35 AM Chapter 2 : Atoms, Molecules, and Ions 2.1 | The Atomic Theory of Matter • Early greek philosophers like Democritus believed that the material world was made up of tine indivisible particles called "atomos" • Later Plato and Aristotle stated that these particles were not possible • John Dalton eventually formulated the notion off atoms that he used to measure amounts of atoms when they reacted with other substances ○ Dalton's Atomic Theory 1. Each element is composed of extremely small particles called atoms. 2. All atoms of a given element are identical, but the atoms of one element are different from the atoms of all other elements. 3. Atoms of one element cannot be changed into atoms of a different element by chemical reactions; atoms are neither created nordestroyed in chemical reactions. 4. Compounds are formed when atoms of more than one element combine; a given compound always has the same relative number and kind of atoms. 2.2 | The Discoveryof Atomic Structure • The atoms is composed of subatomic particles : electrons, neutrons, and protons. ○ Cathode Rays and Electrons:  Electrical discharge through a glass tube, pumped empty air .  When a high voltage was applied to electrodes in tube, radiation was produced between electrodes.  This radiation is called cathode rays - where they originated at the negative electrode and traveled to the positive electrode  More experiments under J. J. Thomson showed that the cathode rays were deflected by magnetic or electric fields in a way that was consistent with a negative electrical charge. □ Described the cathode rays as streams of negatively charged particles. □ Led to the discovery of the electron. And then the charge - to - mass ratio 1.76 C/g □ ○ Oil Drop Experiment:  Robert Milikan was able to measure the charge of an electron by allowing drops of oil to fall between electrically charged plates.  Milikan changed the voltage between the plates, and measured how that affected the rate of the fall.  He found the value of the charge to be 1.602 x C  This allowed for the electron mass to be found from the value of the charge and Thomson's ratio □ * g ○ Radioactivity:  Henri Becquerel discovered that uranium spontaneously emits high - energy radiation or is radioactive.  Ernest Rutherford then found there were three types of radiation: □ Beta - attracted to positively positively charged plate - fast moving particles □ Gamma - high energy radiation and does not carry a charge (x-rays) □ Alpha - positive charge that are attracted to negative plate - fast moving particles Chapter 2 Page 5 ○ The Nuclear Model of the Atom:  Plum pudding model □ Thomson said the atom consists of a uniform positive sphere of matter where the mass is evenly distributed and the electrons are embedded like seeds.  Nuclear Model: □ Rutherford observed in an experiment at which angles alpha particles were being deflected as they passed through gold foil.  Almost all of the particles passed through, but went on to observe scattering at large angles which disproved the plum pudding model.  The alpha particles were being deflected by a positive center (the nucleus). □ The model explained most of the mass of each atom and its positive charge reside in a small, dense region called the nucleus. And that most of the atom was empty space with electrons. □ Protons were discovered by Rutherford and neutrons were discovered by James Chadwick. 2.3 | The Modern View of the Atomic Structure • In modern times, the charge of the electron is expressed as -1 and a proton is expressed by +1. Neutrons are electrically neutral. • *Every atoms has an equal number of electrons and protons* • Protons and neutrons are in the nucleus of the atom. • Electrons are attracted to the protons in the nucleus by an electrostatic force. • Atomic Numbers: ○ The number of protons in an atom. ○ *The atoms of each element have a characteristic # of protons* • Mass number: ○ The amount of neutrons plus the protons. ○ Atoms can differ in the amount of neutrons and consequently in mass too. • Isotopes: ○ Atoms with identical atomic # but different mass #, because of different # of neutrons in nucleus. 2.4 | Atomic Weights • Measured in atomic mass units (amu) • Elements mostly occur as mixtures of isotopes so we can determine the average atomic mass or atomic weight of each element. Chapter 2 Page 6 Lecture #2 Thursday, August 25, 2016 2:22 PM Atomic Theory of Matter (2.1) • 400 BC: Matter consisted of very small indivisible particles, atomos. • 1800s(Dalton's hypothesis) - 2000 year gap ○ Law of multiple proportions: CO, CO 2  Mass of A that combines with the mass of B is a ratio of small whole numbers. AB, A B, AB 2 2 ○ Law of constant composition:H O 2  Proust (1799) - took different samples of the same substance contain the same proportion of atoms □ Water is always 11% H, and 88% O ○ Law of conservationof mass:  Lavosier(1785) - During a chemical reaction, the total mass before the reaction is equal to the total mass after the reaction Discoveryof Atomic Structure (2.2) 1850s:atoms composedof charged particles • Thompson:charge to mass ratio (C/g) • Milikin: charge of an electron e mass = 9.10 *10 -28g • Rutherford : alpha, beta, and gamma rays • The Nuclear Model of the Atom ○ Thompson:plum pudding ○ Rutherford: electron scattering ○ Chadwick: neutron Atomic Structure - Modern View (2.3) • Can see spider web thread: 0.0001cm • Atom: 10 -10m Nucleus: 10 -14m


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