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Ch.1 Sociology (continued)

by: Brooke Notetaker

Ch.1 Sociology (continued) SYG 1000

Marketplace > Florida Atlantic University > Sociology > SYG 1000 > Ch 1 Sociology continued
Brooke Notetaker

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Pages 11-17
Intro Sociology
Gina Lukasik
Class Notes
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Brooke Notetaker on Monday August 22, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to SYG 1000 at Florida Atlantic University taught by Gina Lukasik in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 25 views. For similar materials see Intro Sociology in Sociology at Florida Atlantic University.


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Date Created: 08/22/16
Ch.1 Sociology in a Changing World (Pages 11-17)  Auguste Comte: Stability and Change - Comte focused the science of society. This would focus on the laws that governed human behaviors. - The two questions that were asked was: o How and why do societies change? o What is the basis of social stability at a specific historical moment? - He was focused on how society developed from hunters and gatherers to his own nineteenth-century European society. - Comte theory: Positivism, a belief that accurate knowledge must be based on scientific method.  Herbert Spencer: Society as a Social Organism - His theory: Society consists of different parts each with a unique function that work together to make it a whole. - He also theorized that when the different parts change then the functions changes as well. - He also believed that no matter what happens with the government/environment it should not change the progress of evolution. - “survival of the fittest” (today known as social Darwinism)  Key Founders:  Karl Marx: Effects of Capitalism - Saw that industrial capitalism was productive and capable of stopping hunger and poverty. - But industrial capitalism was used to produce big fortunes for a small amount of owners, while leaving workers to work in risky conditions and live in poverty. - Marx said that the dynamics of capitalism encouraged owners to pay the lowest wages possible because lower labor costs means higher profits. - Marx thought that the conflict between owners and workers was a feature of capitalism - His theory: the exploitation of workers would get so extreme that wage laborers would improve and take over the capitalist system. Then they would take in socialism. - He predicted that cheap labor meant expansion of capitalism and the growth of labor movements demanding an end to unregulated capitalism - The revolutionary worker movements Marx supported such as Great Britain, France, and Germany reformed rather than overthrew capitalism. - The socialist revolutions like Russia and China did the exact opposite than what Marx had thought. They took place in agricultural societies that did not have the ability to produce a large amount of material goods. - Marx argued: o Economic power could influence certain aspects of social life (government/cultural institutions) o Between structure and action  Emile Durkheim: Social Solidarity - Focused on social solidarity - Believed that the society comes together due to shared cultural values - Observed traditional agricultural societies: shared bonds because people did the same work, religion, and similar customs - As societies grew people became more different to one another - Durkheim argued Spencer’s thought process by explaining that the social glue that holds others together modern society mirrors the way living organisms depend on multiple components in unison - We all become dependent on one another due to the different skills each person contains - His theory helped explain why rapid growth and social differentiation in European societies did not lead to the breakdown of social solidarity - Believed that punishment means to bring back social solidarity  Max Weber: Protestant Ethic and Rationalization of Modern Life - Weber thought that culture in the form of Protestantism helped start capitalism in northern Europe - Catholic Church influeneced people to reject wordly affairs and wealth promising thm everlasting life to those who did baptism and communion - After Protestant Reformation the Calvinists rejected that and said that people’s fate in the afterlife was already set since birth and couldn’t be changed - Weber argued that cultural beliefs could influence economic development - Weber would look at things in “the other person’s shoes” - Weber also argued that rationalization of society propelled the social change of his day o Meaning: the priniciple of rationality of held responsible for the formation of bureaucracies within big organizations - Saw that rationalization would make poor societies - He thought bureaucracy would contrain human action and imprison people - He saw signs of caution and concern for how the society would be affected  Harriet Martineau: Gender Discrimination - Focused on gender discrimination, agitated for women’s sufferage, and the growth of women’s rights in England - Wrote articles for magazines and books that would be seen by the public instead of the academic audience - Traveled to the US where she wrote 2 books based on her experience - She wrote about the failure to live up to its promises about women and slaves - She translated work of Comte for English audiences  W.E.B. DU Bois: Racial Inequality - Researched about race in America and promoted racial justice - Traveled to Nashville and saw African Americans being treated poorly - Founded the NAACP and wrote the magazine for it titled, The Crisis - During Cold War US Justice Department accused him of being an agent in the Soviet Union and was acquitted  Jane Addams: Urban Social Problems - Believed that social theory and research should be linked to action promoting social change - She said that a well functioning democratic society requires an understanding of a wide range of experiences and perpectives - Shadowed feminist social theory - She argued that for researchers to understand social problems they need to have connection with those affected by the problem - When she interacted with immigrants she felt that people seek to improve their conditions even in difficult situations


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