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PY 101

by: Ashley Bartolomeo
Ashley Bartolomeo
GPA 3.9

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Notes on lecture 3- neurons and neurotransmitters
Intro to Psychology
Class Notes
intro, to, Psychology
25 ?




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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ashley Bartolomeo on Monday August 22, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PY 101 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by TBA in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 15 views. For similar materials see Intro to Psychology in Psychology (PSYC) at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.


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Date Created: 08/22/16
Lecture 3 Neurons and Neurotransmitters Neurons Neurons: The basic unites of the nervous system  Operate through electrical impulses  Communicate with other neurons through chemical signals  Form neural networks Three basic phases  Reception  Integration  Transmission Three Types of Neurons 1. Sensory- touch, feel 2. Motor- movement ex. Holding a pen 3. Interneuron- local neurons, shorter distance Neuron Structure Reception  Dendrite: branchlike extensions of neurons that detects information from other neurons Integration  Cell Body (Soma): site in neuron where information from 1000s of other neurons is collected and integrated  Axon: long narrow outgrowth of a neuron by which information is transmitted to other neurons  Glial Cells: maintain homeostasis, form myelin and provide support and protection for neurons  Myelin Sheath: fatty material made up of glial cells that insulates some axons to allow for faster movement of electrical impulses along the axon  Node of Ranvier: small gaps of exposed axon, between the segments of myelin sheath, where action potentials take place Terminal  Terminal Buttons: at the ends of axons, small nodules that release chemical signals from the neuron into the synapse  Synapse: gap between axon of a “sending” neuron and the dendrites of a “receiving” neuron; site where chemical communication between neurons occurs  Neurotransmitters: chemical substances that transmit signals from one neuron to another  Receptors: in neurons, specialized protein molecules on the postsynaptic membrane; neurotransmitters bind to these molecules after passing across the synapse o The binding of a neurotransmitter with a receptor produces an excitatory or inhibitory signal Action Potentials  Resting Membrane Potential: the electrical charge of a neuron when it is not active (polarized)  Action Potential (Neural Firing): the electrical signal that passes along the axon and subsequently causes the release of chemicals from the terminal buttons  Neurons receive chemical signals from nearby neurons at the dendrites o Excitatory signals depolarize (i.e., increase chance of neural firing) o Inhibitory signals hyperpolarize (i.e., decrease chance of neural firing)


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