Week 2, Lecture 2, Cognitive Neuroscience - The Brain
Week 2, Lecture 2, Cognitive Neuroscience - The Brain 4100
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Popular in Psychology (PSYC)
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Leslea Motley on Monday August 22, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 4100 at University of Georgia taught by Kara Dyckman in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 5 views. For similar materials see Cognitive Psychology in Psychology (PSYC) at University of Georgia.
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Date Created: 08/22/16
08/18/2016 ▯ FROM LAST TIME (8/16) Cognitive Revolution Three main influences 1. Research on human performance (WWII) Discussion about considerations when designing something/new technology to go in your car (i.e., back-up camera, apps, Bluetooth, etc.) o Purpose of cars is to drive so that should be your PRIMARY focus – secondary elements make driving more difficult because they distract you o Perception – usually the screen is in the center of the vehicle o User-friendly, simple to use and understand o Attempt to limit distractions o This relates to WWII – designing cockpits in planes, etc., people started to consider placement of certain objects based on varying individual perceptions o Touch screen vs. dials This is an example of taking cognitive principles and applying them to real world situations. How we think, function, how much sleep we need, how much faster can we go etc. II. Computer science: artificial intelligence (“AI”) do computers influence how humans operate? III. Study of linguistics – study of the structure of language and specifically the acquisition of language Generally around age 3-4 y/o, most children are speaking in a way that can be understood by most people, not only their parents Verbal Behavior (written in the late 50s) - Skinner Noam Chomsky – wrote a book saying that everything that Skinner said was wrong, his idea was that it couldn’t be that way – there is something about being human that allows us to acquire language – if we get regular language input we will acquire language* o Some of his arguments for language not being purely imitation and conditioned – children are able to put words together to say things that they have never heard before o Children say things that are incorrect and have not been rewarded o This got people to downplay the behaviorism aspect and begin to focus more on cognition. ▯ ▯ Cognitive Neuroscience – CH 2, today is the introduction to the brain I. Why to we discuss the brain in CP? Where does specific information transfer take place in the body, and how exactly does in manipulate your body into doing specific things? Where is information stored? Is it possible to read a person’s mind by measuring the activity of the brain? What kind of info do we get from brain imaging? II. Outline Lobes of the brain Localization of function Next time – neurons and neuron communication brain imaging techniques and how they are used to study Cog. processing III. Brain Color – white, gray, pink Consistency – malleable (it will depress, and also reform after depression), kind of heavy (~3 lbs.), not a completely solid structure – floating in cerebrospinal fluid (“CSF”) in your brain CSF – purpose – protection, lubrication Concussion – brain hits the inside of the skull, may ricochet back and hit the back of the skull Two hemispheres (Left and Right) connected to each other through a band of fibers called the corpus callosum Left hemisphere – Lateral surface of the brain, Cerebral cortex – folds/grooves serve to increase surface area of the brain, controversy over the Medial surface – (break brain in half and look at the inside surface of one of the hemispheres) IV. Localization of Function Grey matter – where most neuron cell bodies are located, neurons located in the ‘cortical ribbon’ surrounding white matter of brain White matter Specific functions are served by specific areas of the brain Cerebral cortex – 3-5mm thick ‘ribbon’ surrounding the white matter throughout the brain Because of this localization, if brain damage is specified to a certain area, doctors can determine which behavioral deficits will take effect as a result. V. Lobe Functions Frontal Executive function – planning, organization, sequencing Parietal Touch Spatial perception and attention Occipital Vision Temporal Hearing – primary auditory signals come to this place in the brain first Memory (Hippocampus – not on cortical surface) Discussion – Synesthesia VI. Sensory and Motor cortices Very back of the frontal lobe – motor cortex – diff areas along the motor cortex correspond to diff parts of your body If someone stuck an electrode in your motor cortex into a specific area, it would make that park of your body move – if on left brain, right would move, etc. Sensory cortex - Neurons receiving information from your body – touch (if someone touched your left had, your right brain senses it) VII. Principles of Functioning Contralaterality control of one side of the body is localized in the opposite-side cerebral hemisphere most senses are contralateral – except smell because it is very rare that you only smell things with one side of your nose VIII. Playdough brains Fusiform face area – back near visual cortex – if damaged, you have “prosopagnosia” – you cannot recognize people by their faces IX. Video – “Split brain” youtube – the man with two brains ▯ ▯
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