Principles of Biology Notes
Principles of Biology Notes BIOL 1020-001
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by KennyFry Notetaker on Monday August 22, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 1020-001 at Auburn University taught by James Zanzot in Summer 2016. Since its upload, it has received 7 views. For similar materials see Principle of Biology in Biology at Auburn University.
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Date Created: 08/22/16
08/17/2016 Qualities shared by all living organisms Ordered and Organized Regulates Itself Energy Processing Growth and Develop Reproduction Response to the Environment Evolutionary Adaptation Life as we know it also has physical properties Requires water (Ch. 3) Carbon-based (Ch. 4) Made up of units called cells (Ch. 6) DNA based transfer of hereditary information (Unit 3) Integrated with other organisms (Unit 4) What is a Virus? Viruses are not alive. Yet they are made up of stuff living organisms are made up of. Theories in science Evolutionary Theory Atomic Theory Plate Tectonic Theory Big Bang Theory Cell Theory Germ Theory Theory of Gravity Theories of Relativity What is a Theory? A scientific theory is a broad framework or model for explaining natural phenomena. A theory generates more specific, testable hypotheses. A theory must be supported by observational and experimental evidence. A theory has practical application NOT a wild guess -08/19/2016 Key Concepts Matter consists of chemical elements in pure form and in combinations called compounds An elements properties depend on the structure of its atoms The formation and function of molecules depend on chemical bonding between atoms Chemical reactions make and break chemical bonds. Matter consists of chemical elements in pure form and in combinations called compounds. Matter Takes up space Has mass Can exists as solid, liquid, gas, (plasma) Element: a substance which cannot be broken down by chemical means Eg oxygen, iron, gold Compound: Substance Chemical symbols- Elements have 1 or 2 letter symbols Eg- Au, B, U, Rn Elements and Compounds Sodium (Na) + Chlorine (Cl) = Sodium Chloride (NaCl) Humans are mainly- 96.3% Oxygen, Carbon, Hydrogen, and Nitrogen Subatomic particles- Has a Nucleus: with Protons and Neutrons. Electrons are on outside. Elemental Properties are determined by atomic structure Atoms: the smallest unit of matter, indivisible by chemical means Nucleus: the central part of the atom Proton: a nuclear particle with positive charge Neutron: nuclear particle with no charge Mass p= Mass n= 1.7 X 10- 24g Electron: atomic particle with negative charge, 1/2000 Mass p or n Atomic number and atomic mass Atomic NUMBER determined by number of protons (bottom left number) Atomic MASS determined by number of protons and neutrons (top left number) Isotopes are when elements have a different number of neutrons than they do of protons. Which gives it a different mass. When they become unstable they decay and become radioactive Atoms are mostly empty space- If they were the size of a football stadium. Than the nucleus would be the size of the pencil eraser on the 50yd line. Electrons would be flies wising around. Nuclei are not directly involved in most chemical reactions. Chemical reactions make and break bonds Bonds are interactions between electrons Energy Energy is the capacity to do work or effect change, comes in many forms (Chemical, mechanical, heat, light) Potential energy: reflects position or structure (Like a water tower with its pressure) Energy levels of electrons Electrons live in their orbital layers. The first shell has lowest energy level. Further away means more energy. (Negative) Electrons = # of (Positive) Protons for a charge of 0 --08/22/16 Strong Chemical bonds form Because atoms are more stable when their valence (outermost) shells are filled. Chemical Bonds Are how molecules are formed Strong bond (intramolecular) o Covalent o Ionic Weaker Bonds (intermolecular) o Hydrogen bonds o Can der Waals interactions Covalent Bonds- Are formed when two electrons are shared by two atoms (Trying to fill the shell) Bonding Capacity The number of bonds an atom can form Is dependent on the number of valence electrons How many unpaired electrons required to complete valence shell H -1 C -4 O -2 N -3 ^ Needed to complete valence shell. Ionic Bonds- Are when atoms have one to a few extra electrons but instead of trying to gain far more electrons it requires less energy to lose the few or one electron it does have to complete both electrons valence shells. Creates Cation (Positively charged) and an Anion (Negatively charged) atom. Ions – Are charged atoms or molecules # of protons does NOT = the # of electrons + charged ion= Cation - charged ion = Anion Ionic compounds, generally, are SALTS Environment affects ionic bond strength Weak Chemical Bonds Hydrogen bonds Van der Waals interactions Van der Waals attraction Typically, in non-polar molecules Asymmetry in charge distribution Large molecules, packed together Weaker than H- bonds Strength in #’s Molecular shape and function Molecules are 3-D All of these types of bonds contribute to shape of Molecules Shape is essential to function Chemical reactions make and break bonds Reactants + Reactants Reaction = Products Chemical reactions are dynamic processes Reactions are reversible Concentration of reactants affects the rate of reactions Equilibrium: rates of forward and reverse rxns are the SAME Summary Matter consists of chemical elements in pure form and in combinations called compounds An elements properties depend on the structure of its atoms The formation of function of molecules depend on chemical bonding between atoms Chemical reactions make and break chemical bonds. End Chapter Video Commentary Notes- Cohesion- Ability to stick to itself (Hydrogen bonds) Adhesion- Ability to stick to other things Polar Molecule- H2o
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