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BISC 336 Week 1 Day 1

by: Madlyn Notetaker

BISC 336 Week 1 Day 1 Bisc 336, Section 5

Madlyn Notetaker
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About this Document

These notes cover ch.1 as discussed in class and also my own notes from the book.
Dr. Erik Hom
Class Notes
central, dogma




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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Madlyn Notetaker on Monday August 22, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Bisc 336, Section 5 at University of Mississippi taught by Dr. Erik Hom in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 7 views.

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Date Created: 08/22/16
Genetics­ Hom section 5  Day 1­8/22/16 Notes Everything in black is notes from class Everything in red is what I added when I read the chapter  Ch. 1­Intro to Genetics  What is genetics? o It is a branch of biology devoted to the study of heredity/ variation… of traits  (charaterstics)  Variation­ we all look different  Characteristics­ observed through phenotypes  Basis of traits? o Genes  2 definitions of genes  1. Fundamental unit of heredity information  2. Physically encoded by a locus (region) of DNA o contains info that is passed down o heredity   DNA, sex, evolution  Sex is used to get recombination which creates variation o Variation  Statistics (population)  If you want the odds of you getting a trait or disease it needs to be  # of people that have it over the population o Ex. Sickle cell 1/400 Africans have it  o Phenotypes  Generally, a behavior (environment)  Observable features o Genotype  Set of alleles for a given trait carried by the organism   Can also be a physical trait like red hair o Central Dogma   Means fundamental   This was a worksheet in class  It examines the molecular level   Explains how genes affect phenotype  Describes the flow of genetic information on biology systems via  polymers   DNA, RNA, Proteins o DNA­ structure was discovered by Watson Crick  Can go through replication   Methylation (CH3) groups can affect the  epigenetics and modify genes  Ex. Obesity o Short/Long RNA affects/modifies transcription  o Made of four nucleotide bases  Adenine, guanine, thymine, cytosine o A­T and C­G o RNA is single stranded and has Urine instead of thymine  Prions   An infectious agent that is mad entirely of proteins  Leads to a disease similar to a viral infection such as mad cow  disease  Inteins  Also known as introns in protein splicing  Can be removed or added to an extien  Transcription  The process in which DNA is unwound and transcribed into RNA o This takes place in the nucleus  o Creates a commentary RNA sequence  o RNA then moves to the cytoplasm    it attaches to the ribosomes  called mRNA  mRNA can be synthesized into a protein through  translation  translated in triplet couples called codons  these codons code for different proteins  translation takes place on the ribosome  tRNA is used to help assemble proteins  Reverse Transcription  The process of going from RNA to DNA  HIV does this o Proteins  Made from 20 different amino acids  Need to memorize structure and properties  Enzymes are the largest category of proteins  Other proteins are hemoglobin, insulin,  collagen   Modifications that could be made to the central dogma in the past 50 years o Reverse transcription   HIV goes from RNA to DNA and encodes itself into the genome  of the host  Rous Sarcoma Virus (RSV)­ the 1  cancer virus found  o RNA Replication  RNA can also replicate itself like DNA and the copies can chill for a while and not get translated like DNA can make copies and not  be transcribed  Mutation o Can modify or eliminate the function of that protein  This can alter the phenotype  Ex. Sickle cell   Sickle Cell Anemia o SINGLE PONT MUTATION – on the codon 6  Glutamic acid to valine  GAG to GUG  Individuals with two beta­globin genes have sickle cell  1/400 in African community is affected  get goopy blood. b/c it is hydrophobic amino acid  the cells begin to aggregate in the cell  chromosome 11 mutation


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