Public Relations 3850 Lecture 1 Notes 8-16
Public Relations 3850 Lecture 1 Notes 8-16 ADPR 3850
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Popular in Public Relations
This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Bridget Notetaker on Monday August 22, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ADPR 3850 at University of Georgia taught by Micheal Caccitore in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 191 views. For similar materials see Public Relations in Public Relations at University of Georgia.
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Date Created: 08/22/16
ADPR 3850 Public Relations Lecture 1 Public Relations can be defined as: o “The management of communication between an organization and its publics” Who are these “publics”? Internal and external publics o Based on organizational boundaries Primary, secondary and marginal o Based on influence/need Traditional and future o Based on time Proponents, opponents and uncommitted o Based on relationship o Potential Publics for Multinational Corporations We divide people into many different groups Ex: press, stockholders, suppliers, etc. o Other terms common to definitions of PR Deliberate Planned Performance Public interest Two-way communication Components of PR: o Counseling/opinion change o Research o Media relations o Publicity o Employee/member relations o Community relations o Public affairs/lobbying (PR aimed at government) o New and existing relationships o Issue management Ex: pre-problem PR o Financial relations o Monitoring environment o Development/fund-raising o Multicultural relations/workplace diversity o Special events o Integrated communications o Etc. A PR professional must have skills in: o Written and interpersonal communication o Research o Negotiation o Creativity o Logistics/management skills o Facilitation o Problem solving PR as a process: R.A.C.E. o Research: defining PR problems o Action: program planning o Communication: execution o Evaluation: evaluating the problem The PR Decision-Making Process: 1. Research: define the problem Some form of qualitative or quantitative research is often conducted to define the problem o Ex: a survey of a company moral o Ex: survey of consumers o Ex: analysis of sales data Oftentimes, we’ll conduct a situation analysis to summarize the problem and broader situation The situation analysis: o Client background o Product/service/brand information o Market/competition o Consumer profile o Brand and marketing analysis o S.W.O.T. (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats) Analysis o Strategic implications an recommendations 2. Action: state the program objectives Differentiate between goals (long-term) and objectives (specific outcomes) Objectives may be informational, attitudinal/motivational, and/or behavioral Brainstorm for campaign o What should we do? 3. Communication: develop campaign to meet objectives Base the campaign on pre-existing research Base the campaign on theory Base the campaign on the research you conducted earlier in the process 4. Evaluation: evaluate, evaluate, evaluate Should be done continuously Did the campaign work? Alternative depictions of the Process: o Formative (before) research and analysis o Use research to establish objectives/strategies o Develop campaign o Execute plan/campaign o Evaluative (after) research o Use research to adjust future campaigns Differences between PR and Journalism: o Scope: PR: has a much broader scope Ex: organizing a special event one day and writing a press release the next Journalism: about producing content Ex: news articles, magazines features, TV segments, etc. o Objectives: PR: has a goal of advocacy Journalism: strives for objectivity in reporting Ex: point/counter-point news writing, giving equal time to both sides of a debate o Ex: global warming, intelligent design vs. evolution o Audiences and Channels: PR: Specialists will tailor their materials much more to different segments of the public and will often do something through a variety of channels Journalists: produce content for the medium for which they work, but must also write for mass audiences Ex: Paul Krugman produces articles for the NY Times while Matt Drudge does so for the “The Drudge Report” website Differences between PR and Advertising: o Tools: PR: works in the area of “earned” or “owned” media Ex: professionals might submit news information to journalists for consideration (ex: publicizing and event), but also rely heavily on the events themselves to build relationships with publics and different organizations Advertising: use paid placements as their primary tool for work Ex: print media ads, commercials, product placement, etc. o Audience: PR: concerned with both internal and external audiences Ex: they might target external groups like shareholders, vendors, or opinion leaders, including environmental groups Ex: might focus efforts on employees within the organization Advertisers: concerned only with an external audience Ex: consumers of various goods/services o Scope/Function: PR: broader in scope, dealing with the performance of the organization as a whole Ex: they deal with not only how consumers view their organization, but also how employees within the organization feel, how the customer service is operating, etc. Advertising: much smaller scope and is viewed as a specialized communication function (ex: to market the product) Ex: Wal-Mart and their brand image or employee relations o Cost: PR: can be viewed as a cost-effective alternative Ex: product publicity is news coverage of a product or service Ex: Why might this be more effective than advertising to promote a product of service? Advertising: can be quite expensive Marketing: the act or process of selling or purchasing in a market o There are 4 P’s of marketing: 1. Product 2. Place 3. Price 4. Promotion 5. Public Relations is often referred to as the 5 P Differences between PR and Marketing: o Audience Focus: PR: focused on many different publics and sales are not the main focus Concerned with relationships and trust with publics Concerned with an organization’s values Marketing: consumer focused with a goal of selling products or services, oftentimes through packaging and promotions Goal is to increase “the slope of the demand curve” for a product or service o Language: PR: less concerned with the “hard sell” and sis more conversational in tone Interested in two-way communication with “publics” and “stakeholders” that are not just “consumers” of the product or service Marketing: utilizes sales-oriented language Ex: they speak of “target markets”, “customers”, and “consumers” o Objective: PR: raise awareness, educate, or inform the public, and/or builds trust in the organization PR’s currency is not necessarily economic but could be awareness, trust, etc. Marketing: satisfy economic objectives Ex: influence purchases How to meet objectives: o PR: oftentimes more effective than marketing or advertising when it comes to: Premarket conditioning Long-term strategy development Generating word of mouth Building a brand’s reputation Building corporate reputation Overcoming a crisis o Marketing: oftentimes more effecting than PR or Advertising when it comes to: Launching and promoting a new product or service Acquiring and retaining customers Targeting niche audiences o Advertising: oftentimes is better than PR or Marketing when it comes to: Building awareness for a specific product or service Toward an integrated perspective: o Strategic Communication: Concept of integration: To use a variety of strategies and tactics to convey a consistent message in a variety of forms o Ex: Edelman Why the shift to Integrated/Strategic Communication? Downsizing leads to consolidation o Oftentimes fewer employees are expected to do the same amount of work Tighter budgets o Advertising can be costly (and we TiVo by some of them), so alternative means of building publicity is being turned to Advertising clutter and credibility o Maybe not the cure-all it was believed to be Increasing attention to how social policy can influence the marketing of products and services invites PR participation o What groups should the organization give to, if any? How PR contributes to the bottom line: o Building awareness: increase sales and stock prices through publicity, promotion, and targeted communications to segmented audiences o Organizational motivation: increase company morale, etc. through internal relations and communication o Issue scanning: understand public opinion early in the process through systematic and comprehensive research methodologies o Opportunity identification: discover new markets and opportunities by maintaining dialogues with a variety of audiences o Crisis management: protect your position and reputation by having a concrete plan for handling crisis o Counseling executives: help make informed decisions by counseling those in charge o Serving as an agent of change: outline benefits and plans for change through dialogue with a variety of audiences o Ensuring social responsibility: create a positive reputation and earn community trust by aligning an organization with public interest projects, etc. o Influencing public policy: eliminate political barriers through lobbying and building coalitions with decision-makers o Creates positive public opinion: builds relationships with audiences through planned events, providing information to needed publics, and generally doing good things o Prevents negative public opinion: ensures there is crisis plans, training employees to speak with media, influencing company policy, etc. o Generates sales leads: develop prospects and generate sales leads for new markets as people follow up on news released by PR o Considered more credible: provides third party endorsements via news organizations o Stretches advertising and promotional dollars: use of timely press releases, clever campaigns, events, etc. help sell minor products that may lack significant advertising budget o Provides inexpensive sales literature: news articles and subsequent consumer reviews provide visibility for promoting products that would cost money if pursued through more traditional means Ex: advertising
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