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8/22-8/24 Class Notes

by: Mallory Notetaker

8/22-8/24 Class Notes 40503

Marketplace > Texas Christian University > Biology > 40503 > 8 22 8 24 Class Notes
Mallory Notetaker
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About this Document

These are the detailed notes from the first two classes of this semester. Math is explicitly detailed and teacher's words are noted on top of all information from the slides.
Basic Biochemistry
Dr. Gail Jones
Class Notes




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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Mallory Notetaker on Monday August 22, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 40503 at Texas Christian University taught by Dr. Gail Jones in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 6 views. For similar materials see Basic Biochemistry in Biology at Texas Christian University.


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Date Created: 08/22/16
Basic Biochemistry  Notes  8/22 Blood consists of plasma and formed elements  ­Plasma: the liquid of the blood in its natural uncoagulated state.  Contains many  dissolved substances such as proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, ions, oxygen, hormones, and  waste products such as urea, creatinine, uric acid, and carbon dioxide. Serum is NOT the same as plasma  ­Serum: created in lab; the liquid obtained from clotted, centrifuged blood ­Differs from plasma in that it lacks some of the clotting proteins (they were consumed in forming the clot) Normal blood (plasma) pH is 7.35 ­ 7.45 ­anything below this is acidosis and anything below is alkalosis ­acidosis:  central nervous system becomes depressed; coma ­alkalosis: CNS overexcited; spasms, convulsions  Blood pH is regulated by buffers ­most commonly a weak acid and its conjugate base (salt). Body’s buffering systems  work best with acidosis. ­Doesn’t handle alkalosis as well. Above is talking about the liquid parts of the blood but now the non liquid parts… Formed elements: WBCs, RBCs, and platelets  ­RBCs: produced by bone marrow and released into circulation once they are almost  mature.  The nucleus is extruded and the mature RBC is full of hemoglobin,  some ions,  some enzymes. ­before released into the blood they lose their nucleus  Test results evaluating RBCs Hematocrit levels: packed cell volume (% of total blood volume that is RBC mass) (rest  is WBC, platelets, and plasma) RBC Count: actual number os RBCs microliter (normal 4 to 6 million, women lower than  men) Hemoglobin: amount of hemoglobin contained inside of RBC’s in grams/dl (12­17),  women lower than men. WBCs (leukoctyes): Normal: 4,000­10,000 per microliter 5 different types of WBC ­Neutrophils (segmented and band forms) ­lymphoctyes ­monocytes ­eosinophils ­basinophils  Other formed element: Platelets (also known as thrombocytes) ­not actual cells.  No nucleus or organelles.  Formed by fragmentation of the cytoplasm  from megakaryocytic (polyploid cells formed by endomitosis without cell  division)  ­involved with blood clotting ­normal platelet count: 150,000­400,000 per microliter Expressions of concentration in blood and body fluids 1. % solutions: example ­ physiologic saline (.85% NaCl) means .85 g of NaCl per 100  ml of solution 2. Molarity (moles/liter): example ­ Na value of plasma can be expressed in millimoles/L 3. Weight per volume of solution example: plasma glucose normal level 70­110 mg/deciliter and protein is 6.0­8.0  g/dl 4. Osmolarity (osm/L): based on the colligative properties of water colligative properties: physical properties of water that change when solute is  dissolved in it ­this depends on the number of dissolved particles or entities, not the nature of  them ­Examples of colligative properties (all ways to determine osmolarity of solution) ­vapor pressure ­lower the vapor pressure = more concentrated the solution  ­can’t be used on volatile solutions like alcohol  ­boiling point (not used on blood cuz the proteins denature) ­higher boiling point = higher concentration  ­freezing point ­lower freezing point = higher concentration ­osmotic pressure ­higher osmotic pressure = lower concentration  ­definition: the pressure that stops the net flow of water across the membrane ­Osmolarity vs. Osmolality  ­osmolarity : per L ­osmolality: per kg Math Osmolarity = molarity (multiply by) the # particles formed on dissoc. 1 osmole = gram molecular weight (divided by) # particles formed on  dissociation  Note that the ionizable compounds will increase the osmolarity of solution more than an  equal number of nonionizable molecules example: glucose vs NaCl Osmotic pressure and Human cells ­isotonic: equal concentrations inside and outside the cell (ex. .85% saline).  No  movement of water ­Hypotonic: surrounding solution more dilute than inside cell. water enters cells  until equilibrium reached. cells swell and may rupture  ­if cell is RBC is called hemolysis ­Hypertonic: surrounding solution more concentrated.  Water leaves cell and it  shrinks (called crenation) Because cells are not strictly osmotic membranes, usually a higher concentration of  inorganic ions inside the cell. ­this is the Donnan effect: cells have a membrane potential which causes cells in  plasma to repel each other rather than clump together 8/24 Buffers ­Help maintain pH by resisting pH changes ­a buffer is made up of two components (an acid and its conjugate base) ­buffering capacity depends on the ratio and the molar concentration of acid conjugate  base pair ­Usually most effective buffer system contains equal molar concentration of both  components (where pH is near the pk) ­Exceptoin: Bicarbonate ­it is the free floating Hydrogens [H+] that cause the pH to change ­The ideal ratio in our blood is 20:1 ­20 bicarb ­1 carbonic acid Henderson­Hasselbach equation: <—— Bicarb pH = pKa + log [Conjugate base (salt)] carbonic acid     [acid] Note: pKa = ­log [Ka] Important Body Buffers 1. Bicarbonate/Carbonic Acid Major extracellular buffer of human body  ­It’s effectiveness is based on its high concentration and the face that CO2 can  be easily controlled by the lungs and bicarbonate by the kidneys  ­Ratio of bicarb to carbonic acid needed to maintain normal pH is 20:1 How does this work? Add Acid H+ combines with bicarb to form carbonic acid which converts to carbon dioxide and  water  Carbon dioxide can then be exhaled Add Base Hydroxyl ion combines with carbonic acid to form bicarbonate and water 2. Phosphate  Mainly intracellular in red blood cells and kidney tubules  ­Ratio of hydrogen phosphate to dihydrogen phosphate is usually about 4:1 ­If acid added, H ion combines with hydrogen phosphate to form dihydrogen  phosphate. 3. Proteins Amino acids linked by peptide bonds contain ionizable groups that can accept or  donate protons (hydrogens ions) ­Ex: albumin has histidine groups that can pick up hydrogen ions ­Ex: hemoglobin can pick up protons when it loses oxygen and give them up  when it gains oxygen, i.e. deoxygenated hub (called reduced hub) is more acid  than oxygenated  pH Calculations Strong acids: Use pH = ­log [H+] Strong bases: start as: pOH = ­log [OH­] then solve for pH: pH + pOH = 14 Determining the H or OH ion concentration: Ka = [H+] [A­] [HA]


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