The Neolithic Revolution
The Neolithic Revolution HIST 1010
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Myrissa Webb on Monday August 22, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 1010 at Auburn University taught by Dr. Bohannan in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 154 views.
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Date Created: 08/22/16
The Neolithic Revolution The Paleolithic Age. Also known as the stone age. (400,000-8,000 BCE) People were living in caves and unsettled. They didn’t farm. They were hunters and gatherers. It takes every person in the clan to feed everyone. They are constantly moving to find food. Movement, unsettled, and nomadic life. They learned how to use simple and elementary (i.e. Fire) but they owned little because they moved so frequently. They developed an art form, cave art. The themes have to do with hunting, their heard, and stuff like that. Why did they take so much time drawing in the caves if they worked so hard? These drawings played an important role in rituals and success. It was like a good luck charm for their hunt and to ensure the success for the hunt. There were defined gender roles. Men were the hunters and women were the gatherers. This created an equality of the sexes. Women were crucial to the clan because the clan survived mostly from what the woman gathered. It may mean that the women had respect from the clan and community and that gave them equal status with men. The Neolithic Revolution. It is the single most important development in all of human history. This revolution happened gradually. Around 8,000 BCE people learned how to farm. It started in the Fertile Crescent. Which is the first Neolithic community. They were learning how to domesticate animals and plants. Started with goat and dogs. Imprinting could have been used to domesticate animals. Women had the main role in domesticating plants. The Fertile Crescent was chosen because of the supple of water from the Tigris and Euphrates River. Between these two rivers created old Mesopotamia. Jericho and Catal Huyuk were also places of civilization for the Neolithic Age. Population and Growth. The start of farming was revolutionary because of its results. Most historian say this is the true start of civilization. The Paleolithic Age didn’t populate for mainly 2 reasons. 1)It was dangerous 2) They were mainly nomads, if they had to take care of kids they wouldn't be able to gather food effectively. So how did they control their birth? 1) Abortion 2) Breastfeeding -when you breastfeed a lot it lowers the chances of another baby. This spaced the babies out. Civilization in the Neolithic age was able to populate. 1) It was as dangerous as it was in the Paleolithic Age 2) The were farmers so they didn’t have to move around so much. They could take care of more children. Jericho grew to about 2,000 people and Catal Huyuk grew to about 6,000 people. Commerce and Trade. Since they could stay in one pace they accumulated goods. There are more people so not everyone had a farm. The people not farming could be potters or welders. They were developing an economy of commerce and trade. The farmers started producing a little more than needed, a surplus. They started selling the surplus to other farmers that didn’t have that crop. They started trading crops for crops. This created a swapping of goods. Writing. With all of this swapping and selling of goods, they need a way to keep an account of their trading. This is where writing was developed. Government. Occupation of the land and trading of the goods caused for someone to be in charge. Therefore Government was created to rule and defend the community. Social Stratification. This is a hierarchy of classes. People are not equal, unlike Paleolithic Age. Now in this society some people accumulate more stuff tank others. So the split into classes. Gender-Roles. Social Stratification also affected gender-roles. Because of farming and populating the men's and women's roles changed. Men did all the farming so the women no longer had a role in the food supply. She started taking care of the children and the home. Personal/Private Sphere. The women are increasing taking care of the private sphere, while men are taking care of the public sphere. The Private Sphere was mainly home life. The Public Sphere was Government, Trade, and anything beyond the home. In Paleolithic ages there was no separation in the private and public sphere. All was one. Now in the Neolithic Age they started to separate the two. Warfare. Because of civilization and disputing over boundaries warfare became endemic from this stage on. Urbanization. They would live in a town or a city and then when they went to farm they would go outside their defense walls and farm the surrounding land. Then at night they would come back home where it was safe. There were lots of people which made a more urban civilization.
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