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Chapter #1 Notes 8.17.16

by: Victoria McDonald
Victoria McDonald
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About this Document

These notes review the concepts of HTML.
Intro to Web Development
Robert Brown
Class Notes
web development, intro, introductiontowebdevelopment, webdev, computers, HTML, IT, informationTechnology, notes, #classnotes, chapter1




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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Victoria McDonald on Monday August 22, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to IT 3203 at 1 MDSS-SGSLM-Langley AFB Advanced Education in General Dentistry 12 Months taught by Robert Brown in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 12 views. For similar materials see Intro to Web Development in Web Development at 1 MDSS-SGSLM-Langley AFB Advanced Education in General Dentistry 12 Months.


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Date Created: 08/22/16
Chapter 1: Fundamentals & Introduction to HTML/XHTML 1.1.1 Origins  Department of Defense wants to develop a new large-scale computer network that would continue functioning even if sabotaged. The DoD’s (Department of Defense) Advanced Research Projects Agency funded the initial construction of the network, which was a connection of about a dozen research labs and universities, funded by the ARPA (Advanced Research Projects Agency) This resulted in the naming of the network -ARPAnet; although made for other intentions, it was used mainly as a text- based communication for email. Because ARPAnet was only available in labs and universities, other networks began to develop soon after, including BITNET (Because It’s Time Network – built to provide email and transfer files) and CSNET (Computer Science Network - only built to provide email). However, neither became national networks.  Shortly thereafter, the National Science Foundation founded NSFnet, which although initially connected supercomputers through five universities, became available throughout institutions and labs. By 1990 NSFnet replaced ARPAnet for most nonmilitary uses and connected over 1 million computers worldwide. A few years later a part of NSFnet returned to being a research network although the majority of it became the internet. 1.1.2 What is the Internet?  The internet is basically a collection of computers that connect in a communications network called a TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol). – UDP/IP (User Datagram Protocol/Internet protocol) is an alternative in some cases.  The internet is a network of networks; one node is physically connected to the internet. 1.1.3 Internet Protocol Addresses  Internet Nodes are identified by names, for computers they are identified by numeric addresses.  IP address is a 32-bit number – written as four 8 bit numbers, separated by periods.  DoD is assigned 16 million IP addresses with one particular first 8-bit number. EX to  New IP standard, IPv6 expands from 32bits to 128bits.  Most common internet address are 32 bit numbers  Internet address = IP address  Group of addresses include both broadcast and network address o Network: host is 0. o Broadcast: Host is binary ones. 1.1.4 Domain Names  Collections of machines-domains – may be 3 or more domain names. o 1 : appears on the right is the domain of which the host is a part. o 2 : gives the domain of which the first domain is a part. rd o 3 : identifies the type of organization of which the host resides, which is the largest domain in the site’s name.  EX:  Movies: host name  Marxbros: movie’s local domain, which is part of comedy’s domain which is part of the com domain.  Host name + all domain names are called fully qualified domain name.  Name servers implement the Domain Name System (DNS) and DNS maps names to IP address  Figure 1.1: Fully qualified domain names requested by browser are translated into IPs before routed to the appropriate web server   Use telnet to determine the IP address of a website. Telnet allows a user to log onto the internet with one computer and use another.  File Transfer Protocol: (ftp) transfers files on the internet b/t computers  Usernet: used as an electronic bulletin board  Mailto: allow messages to be sent between users 1.2.1 The World Wide Web Origins  1989, group led by Tim-Berners-Lee at CERN/Euro Organization for Particle Physics proposed a new protocol for the Internet and a system of document access. This system named the World Wide Web allowed scientists to exchange documents which described their work all over the internet.  Form of the documents used hypertext (text with embedded links to text, allowed nonsequential browsing of textual material. Hypertext had been developed earlier and appeared on Xerox’s Notecards and Apple’s Hypercard.  A document containing nontextual info (pictures, sounds, media) – hypermedia. 1.2.2 Web or Internet?  Internet ≠ Web o Internet: collection of computers + other devices connected by equipment that allows them to communicate with each other o Web: collection of software + protocols that has been installed on most computers on the internet 1.3 Web Browsers  Web browsers are clients: they make a request to the server and wait for a response  Two computers comm over a network: 1 is the client and 1 is the server. Client server configuration  Browsers: programs running on client machines  Mosaic: first browser w/graphical user interface. o Dev @ National Center for Supercomputer Applications (NCSA) o Convenient for ppl who weren’t scientists or developers st o 1 release ran on UNIX systems using the X Window System.  HTTP is the most common protocol: provides standard communication b/t browsers + web servers.  Most common browser: Microsoft Internet Explorer (IE): only runs on PCs with the Microsoft systems 1.4 Web Servers  Web servers: programs that provide documents to requesting browsers. o Servers are slave programs: act only when requests are made o Most common Web server: Apache 1.4.1 Web Server Operation  URLs specify: o Address of a data file stored on the server that is to be sent to the client o Program stored on the server that the client wants executed and the output of the program Web protocol, HTTP.  Primary task of Web server: monitor comm port on its host machines, accept HTTP commands through that port, and perform operations specified by those commands. 1.4.2 General Server Characteristics  Web server file structure has 2 separate directories:  1. Root = document root: file hierarchy that grows from the document root store Web docs that servers have direct access to serve to client o Files stored directly in document root are available to clients in top level URLs.  2. Root = server root: stores the server and its support software  Secondary areas for which documents can be served: virtual document trees  Secondary hosts: virtual hosts: servers that support more than one site on a computer  Proxy servers: servers that serve docs that are in the doc root of other machines on the Web.  Absolute paths: start from document root and ALWAYS begin with a slash  Relative paths link with HTML docs and NEVER start with a slash 1.4.3 Apache  Beginning as the NCSA server, httpd, with added features.  First version, patchy version, of httpd server.  Apache = fast + reliable o Open source software = free, processes efficiently. o Best available servers for Linux systems o Reads config information from a file then sets parameters.  3 config files  Httpd.conf (only one that stores directives which specify the server’s operation.)  Srm.conf  Access.conf 1.4.4 IIS  Difference b/t Apache & IIS: Apache controlled by config file edited by manager. IIS snap-in controls IIS and ftp – allows to set parameters for the server 1.5 Uniform Resource Locators  Uniform/Universal Resource Identifiers (URI)-identify resources (docs) on the Internet. They name a resource and provide a path to a resource. Also called Uniform Resource Locators (URLs). 1.5.1 URL Formats  URL general format: scheme:object-address  HTTP protocol supports the Web o Requests and sends Hypertext Markup Language (HTML) documents o HTML docs are a mixture of content and controls  File protocol: document resides in a machine running the browser  Host name: name of the server computer that stores documents o Default port number is 80  In order to add a space, include % and 2 digit hexadecimal ASCII code. o EX: San%20Jose – 20 is hexa for a space  HTTP URLs contain scheme part, host part, path part (which can be empty), optional file name) 1.5.2 URL Paths  UNIX Servers = path specified by forward slashes  Window servers: backward slashes  Complete path: path that includes all directories along the way  Partial path: path to the document is relative to some base path that is specified in the config files.  Directory name followed immediately by a slash if specified doc is a directory rather than a doc. 1.6 Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions  Browsers need to know the format of a document when receiving it from a web server.  Forms of docs specified by MIMEs (Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions) 1.6.1 Type Specifications  MIME made to format different kinds of documents that were sent through email.  MIME specifies what is coming through the web server (ex=text, image, sound, etc) o MIME form: type/subtype o Most common MIME types: text image video o Most common MIME subtypes: plain html o Most common MIME image subtypes: gif jpeg o Most common MIME video subtypes: mpeg quicktime  Document type: Both the type and subtype of the document 1.6.2 Experimental Document Types  Experimental subtype begins with x- (video/x-msvideo)  Helper applications/code modules: inserted into browsers (plug-ins) supply program that the browser can call when needed to display the contents of a database. 1.7 The Hypertext Transfer Protocol  All web communications use HTTP.  HTTP has 2 phases: o Request o Response o Each phase b/t browser and web server consists of a header and body o Header: contains info about communication o Body: contains data of communication 1.7.1 The Request Phase  HTTP request general form: o HTTP method Domain part of the URL HTTP version o Header fields o Blank line o Message body  Figure 1.1 HTTP request methods   Get + Post are most commonly used  Post: use to be used for posting a news article, now used to send form data from browser to server +a request to execute  HTTP 4 categories of header fields o General: For general information, such as the date o Request: Included in request headers o Response: For response headers o Entity: Used in both request and response headers  Common request field is the Accept field: specifies preferences of the browser  * = placed as part of MIME type  Host: host name -requests field gives name of the host 1.7.2 The Response Phase  General form of HTTP response: o Status line – includes HTTP version used and a 3-digit status code + explanation of the code  Begin with a number between 1 and 5  Table 1.2 First digits of HTTP status code  o Response header fields o Blank line o Response body  Status codes: o 404 Not Found: Files not found o 200 OK: Request handled w/o error o 500: Server faced a problem and could not fulfill the request  Following the status line, the server will send a response header  Essential field of the header is the Content-type  Response headers must be proceeded by a blank line (for request headers) 1.8 Security  As Stated in the book, “Transmission of the credit card number to purchase from the company” o Security issues: o  Encryption: basic tool that supports both privacy and integrity  Whitfield Diffie and Martin Hellman developed public key encryption.  Computationally infeasible: determining private keys or public keys  Most widely used public key algorithm: RSA  Zombie computers: infected comp whose users don’t realize it’s infected. 1.9 The Web Programmer’s Tool boy 1.9.1 Overview of HTML  HTML shows the layout and how it will be displayed  Markup: specifies how to the text/graphics should appear when printed.  Element: mixture of tags and their content  Src: location of the image’s tag content 1.9.2 Tools for Creating HTML Documents  HTML Editors and WYSIWYG (What You See Is What You Get) editors are general purpose text editors. o Editors provide shortcuts for tags 1.9.3 Plug-Ins and Filters  Plug-Ins: can be integrated into word processors and allow the ability for toolbar buttons and elements for the menu o Advantages: processors can easily convert to HTML o Disadvantage: you will have 2 source files for a document 1.9.4 Overview of XML  Standard Generalized Markup Language (SGML) language that defines markup languages. eXtensible Markup Language (XML) is a meta-markup language and allows users to create their own markup languages that fits their needs. XML describe data and their meaning. 1.9.5 Overview of JavaScript  JavaScript: client-side scripting language that primarily validate data form that build Ajax-enabled HTML docs.  JavaScript vs Java – JavaScript is dynamically typed 1.9.6 Overview of Flash  2 components: developing framework (authoring environment) + the player o Authoring environment: create graphics and text, etc. o Player: displays the docs 1.9.7 Overview of PHP  PHP: server-side scripting language for web apps. o “Code is interpreted on the server before the HTML doc is delivered to the requesting client.” 1.9.8 Overview of Ajax  Ajax = Asynchronous JavaScript + XML: XLMHttpRequest object to communicate with server scripts o Browser doesn’t have to wait for server to respond o It takes less time to transmit a doc. 1.9.9 Overview of Servlets, JavaServer Pages, and JavaServer Faces  Servlet: compiled Java class, executed on the server system, produces a HTML doc as a response  Servlet container: determines which servlet needs to be executed, loads, and executes. After the HTML document response comes through, it returns to the server  JSP container: processes JSP documents when requested by the browser  JSP basically writes servlets  JSF is an event driven user interface model 1.9.10 Overview of Active Server Pages .NET  Active Server Pages (ASP) builds server-side docs and are supported by programming code which the web server executes.  ASP.NET vs JSF o ASP allows programming cods to be written in any NET languages o All the code is compiled in ASP.NET and makes the execution must faster 1.9.11 Overview of Ruby  Ruby is object oriented.  All the data values are objects 1.9.12 Overview of Rails  Rails (Ruby on Rails) is a development framework to access databases  Rails was made to be used with Ruby PROTOCOLS TO KNOW: TCP/IP: Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol: the most basic transport protocol of the internet (TCP is lower level protocol) HTTP: Hypertext Transfer Protocol – uses TCP/IP for transport (HTTP is higher level protocol)


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