CH1 Vocab POLS 1101 08
Popular in American Government
Popular in Political Science & Int'l Aff. Department
This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by nako.nako.nako on Monday August 22, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to POLS 1101 08 at Kennesaw State University taught by April A Johnson in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 28 views. For similar materials see American Government in Political Science & Int'l Aff. Department at Kennesaw State University.
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Date Created: 08/22/16
- autocracy: System of government in which the power to govern is concentrated in the hands of an individual ruler. - capitalism: Economic system in which businesses and key industries are privately owned and in which individuals, acting on their own or with others, are free to create businesses. - checks and balances: Government structure that authorizes each branch of government (executive, legislative, and judicial) to share powers with the other branches, thereby holding some scrutiny of and control over the other branches. - civic interest: Concern for the well-being of society and the nation as a whole. - civil society: Voluntary organizations that allow communities to flourish. - conservatives: Individuals who distrust government, believing that free markets offer better ways than government involvement to improve people’s livelihood. In the social sphere, conservatives have more faith in government’s ability to enforce traditional values. - constitutional system: System of government in which people set up and agree on the basic rules and procedures that will govern them. - democracy: System of government in which the supreme power is vested in the people and exercised by them either directly or indirectly through elected representatives. direct democracy: Form of democracy in which political power is exercised directly by citizens. - egalitarianism: Belief in human equality that disdains inherited titles of nobility and inherited wealth. - equality: Idea that all individuals are equal in their moral worth and so must be equal in treatment under the law and have equal access to the decision-making process. - equality of opportunity: Expectation that citizens may not be discriminated against based on race, gender, or national background and that every citizen should have an equal chance to succeed in life. - equality of outcome: Expectation that equality is achieved if results are comparable for all citizens regardless of race, gender, or national background or that such groups are proportionally represented in measures of success in life - executive branch: The branch of the federal government that executes the laws. - faction: Defined by Madison as any group that places its own interests above the aggregate interests of society. - federalism: System of government in which sovereignty is constitutionally divided between national and state governments. - Founders: The people who were involved in establishing the United States, whether at the time of the Declaration of Independence or the writing of the Constitution. - Framers: The people who were involved in writing the Constitution. - individualism: Set of beliefs holding that people, and not government, are responsible for their own well-being. - judicial branch: The branch of the federal government that interprets the laws. - legislative branch: The branch of the federal government that makes the laws - liberals: Individuals who have faith in government to improve people’s lives, believing that private efforts are insufficient. In the social sphere, liberals usually support diverse lifestyles and tend to oppose any government action that seeks to shape personal choices. - libertarians: Those who generally believe that government should refrain from acting to regulate either the economy or moral values. - liberty: Political value that cherishes freedom from an arbitrary exercise of power that constricts individual choice. - majoritarian: System of policy making in which those with a numerical majority hold authority. - majority rule: Idea that a numerical majority of a group should hold the power to make decisions binding on the whole group; a simple majority. - Millennials: Generation born between 1982 and 2003 - minority rights: Idea that majority should not be able to take certain fundamental rights away from those in the minority. - moderates: Individuals who are in the middle of the ideological spectrum and do not hold consistently strong views about whether government should be involved in people’s lives. - monarchy: System of government that assigns power to a single person who inherits that position and rules until death. - natural (unalienable) rights: Rights that every individual has and that government cannot legitimately take away. - oligarchy: System of government in which the power to govern is concentrated in the hands of a powerful few, usually wealthy individuals. - order: Political value in which the rule of law is followed and does not permit actions that infringe on the well-being of others - party identification: Psychological attachment to a political party; partisanship. - pluralism: Political system in which competing interests battle over the direction and content of important policy making. - political culture: A shared way of thinking about community and government and the relationship between them. - political equality: The idea that people should have equal amounts of influence in the political system. - political ideology: Set of coherent political beliefs that offers a philosophy for thinking about the scope of government - political parties: Broad coalitions of interests organized to win elections in order to enact a commonly supported set of public policies. - politics: Process by which people make decisions about who gets what, when, and how. - populists: Those who oppose concentrated wealth and adhere to traditional moral values. - power elite: Small handful of decision makers who hold authority over a large set of issues - private goods: Goods or benefits provided by government in which most of the benefit falls to the individuals, families, or companies receiving them. - public goods: Goods or benefits provided by government from which everyone benefits and from which no one can be excluded. - public policy: Intentional actions of government designed to achieve a goal. - representative democracy: Form of democracy in which citizens elect public officials to make political decisions and formulate laws on their behalf. - republic: Form of government in which power derives from citizens, but public officials make policy and govern according to existing law. - responsiveness: Idea that government should implement laws and policies that reflect the wishes of the public and any changes in those wishes. - rule of law: Legal system with known rules that are enforced equally against all people. self-government: Rule by the people. - self-interest: Concern for one’s own advantage and well-being. - separation of powers: Government structure in which authority is divided among branches (executive, legislative, and judicial), with each holding separate and independent powers and areas of responsibility. - social contract: Theory that government has only the authority accorded it by the consent of the governed. - socialism: Economic system in which the government owns major industries.
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