Fake notes Econ 1234
Popular in Introductory Macroeconomic Analysis and Policy
Popular in Macro Economics
This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Darlisia Topps on Monday August 22, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Econ 1234 at Mississippi State University taught by Jim Adelman in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 7 views. For similar materials see Introductory Macroeconomic Analysis and Policy in Macro Economics at Mississippi State University.
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Date Created: 08/22/16
American National Government Final Study Guide Term Executive Branch Franklin D. Roosevelt- He took his power of presidency and broadened defined meaning, adhered a theory of executive power known as the Stewardship Theory, formulated bills and dictated policy to Congress. Cabinet- the group of departmental secretaries and other officials that the president designates. They advises the president on key issues. Stewardship Theory- An approach to presidential power articulated by Theodore Roosevelt and based on the presidencies of Lincoln and a Jackson, who believe that the president has a moral duty to serve popular interest and did not need specific constitutional or legal authorization to take action. Constructionist- A view of presidential power espoused by William Howard Taft, who believed that the president could exercise no power unless it could be traced to or implied from an express grant in either the Constitution or an act of Congress. Honeymoon Period- Ranges from shortly after a president takes office through the first year. This is when congress and the nation give the president the benefit of a doubt. He must move quickly to push his agenda to prove himself worthy of his election position. Transition Period- This is the time between the election and shortly after the president takes office. During this time, a president chooses a cabinet member and sets his agenda. Presidential Succession Act- Clarified this provision by listing an order of Succession to include the vice president, Speake of the House, President Pro Tempore of the Senate, Secretaries of the State, Treasury, and Defense, and other cabinet heads in order of their creation. Executive Office of the President- Created in 1939, that consist of several staff units that serve the president that is not located within the White House. Some of the offices include: The National Security Council, The Council of Economic Advisors, The office of Management and Budget. Credentials to become president- must be at least 35 years old, must be a natural born citizen of the United States, must be a resident of the United States for 14 years. Vice President- The second highest elected official in the United States Roles of president (List and Define)- Chief of state- the president act as a ceremonial chief of state, symbolizing the national government to people in this country and other nations. Commander in chief- Provides national security and defense. Crisis Leader- bring about timely action during periods of crisis, such as terrorist attacks on the military. Chief diplomat- Serve as broker or mediator, develops and oversees foreign policy. Chief Legislator- Forge legislation to improve the quality of life, may initiate legislation as well as exercise his power to veto. Article II of Constitution- The executive power shall be vested in a President of the United States of America. He shall hold his Office during the term of four years, and together with the Vice President, chosen for the same term, be elected as follows. Andrew Jackson- he was seen as the first strong national leader representing the common people and not just the landed elite, he vetoed legislation that was wrong and unconstitutional while other presidents vetoed legislation that was unconstitutional. George Washington- Formed the first Cabinet, he set his own intrepertations for future presidents on what advice and consent of the Senate referred to in voting for treaties, he established the principle of executive privilege and he retired after two terms in office. List and define two views of presidential power- Stewardship View is an approach to presidential power articulated by Theodore Roosevelt and based on the presidencies of Lincoln and Jackson, who believed that the president had a moral duty to serve popular interests and did not need specific constitutional or legal authorization to take action. Constructionist View- is a view of presidential power espoused by William Howard Taft, who believed tht the president could exercise no power unless it could be traced or to implied from an express grant in either the Constitution or an act of Congress. Bureaucracy Bureaucracy- A large and complex organizational system in which task, roles, and responsibilities are structured to achieve a goal. Fourth Branch of Government- Bureaucracy Departments- Major administrative units whose heads are presidential advisers appointed by the president and confirmed by the Senate. They are responsible for conducting a broad range of government operations. Independent Agencies- Agencies established to regulate a sector of the nation’s economy in the public interest. Independent Commissions- Agencies established to be outside the power of both the president and the Congress in their operations. Such agencies have authority that is partly legislative and partly judicial. Government Corporation- A semi-independent government agency the administers a business enterprise and takes the form of a business corporation. Office of Management and Budget- The unit in the Executive Office of the President whose main responsibilities are to prepare and administer the president’s annual budget. A President and the OMB can shape policy through the budget process; the process determines which departments and agencies grow, are cut, or remain the same as the year before. Oversight- Process of monitoring day to day activities. Spoils System- A system in which government jobs and contracts are awarded on the basis of party loyalty rather than social or economic status or relevant experience. Regulation and Deregulation- making rules, enforcing them, and adjudicating disputes about them. Many Americans call for deregulation of some industries to decrease governments role and let natural forces of supply and demand take over. Red Tape- The excessive number of rules and regulations that government employees must follow. Whistleblower Act – This act encourages civil servants to report instances of bureaucratic mismanagement, financial impropriety, corruption, and inefficiency. It also protects civil servants from retaliation, such as being fired, demanded, or relocated. What is main job of Bureaucracy? Implementation Max Weber Characteristics of a Bureaucracy – A chain of command, a division of labor, a specification of authority, a goal orientation, impersonality, and productivity Foreign Diplomacy Solicitor General – The third ranking official in the Justice Department, appointed by the president and charged with representing the U.S. government before the Supreme Court. Containment – A term coined in 1946 by George Kennan, who believed that soviet aggression must be contained by the adroit and vigilant application of counterforce by the U.S. State Department – the oldest preeminent department for the foreign policy bureaucracy, is responsible for managing foreign affairs on a daily basis, protecting American citizens and interest abroad, and analyzing information that might affect US foreign policy. CIA – most important function is to gather information that can be analyzed and reported to policy makers to assist them in making foreign policy decisions. FBI Homeland Security Department of Defense – Headed by the president’s principal military adviser, the secretary of defense, this department is composed of the four service branches (army, navy, air force, and marines). It not only has an important international role but also plays an important social, economic, and political role domestically. NATO – formed in 1949 as an alliance of nations against the soviet union, NATO’s efforts now focus on international crisis management and peacekeeping. Character signed by the U.S., Canada, Turkey, and II European nations in 1949 agreeing that and armed attack against one or more of them in Europe or North America would be interpreted as an attack against all. Nuclear Age Peace Corps – Organization formed by President Kennedy to help with third world development by having American volunteers live and work in needy communities. “Carrot Stick” Foreign Aid – small portion of the federal budget that goes to nonmilitary aid abroad, initially to mitigate against soviet expansion. SALT – Treaty signed by the U.S. and the Soviet Union to limit various classes of nuclear weapons. Policy of Enlargement – This foreign policy objective assumed that enlarging the sphere of market- oriented democracies would further U.S. economic interest. List and define four core national security areas Judicial Branch Original Jurisdiction – The authority of a court to be the first to hear a case. Appellate Jurisdiction –The authority of a court to hear a case on appeal after it has been argued in and decided by a lower federal or state court. Know 1st 10 amendments – Freedom of speech;militia and the Right to Bear Arms; Quartering of Soldiers; Searches and Seizures; Grand Juries, Self- Incrimination, Double Jeopardy, Due Process, and Eminent Domain; Criminal court procedures; Trial by jury to common law cases; Bail, cruel and Unusual punishment; Right to Retained by the People; Reserved powers of the states Appeal John Marshall Article III of Constitution – Vests the judicial power in one Supreme Court, which has both original and appellate jurisdiction. Supreme Court Circuit Court District Court Writ of Habeas Corpus Strict Constructionist Judicial Activism – An approach in which justices create new policy and decide issues, to the point, some critics change of writing their personal values in law. Judicial Review – The power of the court to review and overturn legislative, executive, lower judicial, and state governmental action that is contrary to it interpretation of the Constitution. Magistrate Precedent – Previously decided court cases on an issue similar to the one being considered. Stare Diesis – A doctrine meaning “let the decision stand,” or that judges deciding a case should adhere if at all possible to previously decided cases similar to the one under consideration. Dissenting and Concurring Opinion Civil Rights Integration – Governments efforts to balance the racial composition in schools and public places. Segregation Title IX – Called for equal athletic opportunities for women in schools. This law resulted in great changes in college sports. No one could be excluded from participation in any education program on the basis of sex. Federally funded college or university had to provide opportunities for men and women in varsity sports. Schools had to give scholarships to male and female varsity athletes in the same proportion as those participating in the sports. A three pronged test was created to enforce this provision. Affirmative action - Programs the attempt to improve the chances of minority applications for jobs, housing, employment, or education by giving them a boost relative to white applicants with similar qualifications. Civil Rights Act of 1964 – Was extremely comprehensive and greatly increased the federal government’s ability to fight discrimination. The government could withhold funds from segregated schools and the attorney general could initiate school desegregation suits. Equal Employment Opportunities Commission and the Commissioner of Education put the power of the federal bureaucracy behind efforts to end discrimination. Civil Liberties – The individual freedoms and rights guaranteed to every citizen in the Bill of Rights and the due process clause of the Fourteenth Amendment, including freedom of speech and religion. Slander – Speech the is untruthful, malicious, or damaging to a person’s reputation or good name and thus not protected by the free speech clause of the First Amendment. Libel – Published material that damages a person’s reputation or good name in an untruthful and malicious way. Libelous material is not protected by the First Amendment. Civil Rights – The constitutionally rights that the government may not arbitrarily remove. Among these rights are the right to vote and equal protection under the law. Civil Liberties Direct Incitement Test Griswold v. Connecticut Right to Privacy Plaintiff Defendant List and Define 3 Tiered Judicial System - District Courts – The trial courts serving as the original point of entry for almost all federal cases U.S. Courts of Appeal – The middle appeal level of judicial review beyond the district courts; In 2011, it consisted of 179 judges in 13 courts, 12 of which are geographically based. U.S. Supreme Court – The highest court in the United States. Informally referred to as the High Court or by the acronym SCOUTS, it has ultimate appellate jurisdiction over all state and federal courts, and original jurisdiction over a small range of cases. List and Define Different Types of Speech –Hate Speech - Speech or symbolic actions intended to inflict emotional distress, to defame, or to intimidate people. Symbolic Speech – Some actions that take the place of speech because they communicate a message, like burning the American Flag.
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