Chemistry 101 Lecture Notes
Chemistry 101 Lecture Notes CH 101
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Cierra Pugh on Monday August 22, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CH 101 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Diana Leung in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 6 views. For similar materials see General Chemistry in Chemistry at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.
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Date Created: 08/22/16
Chemistry 101 Notes Chemistry- Understanding matter by studying and understanding the structure of the particles that compose matter! • What exactly is matter? Anything that takes up space! • How can we classify matter? By the physical state and composition(components)! Matter is made out of atoms and or molecules. ⁃ State (Solid(s), Liquid(l), OR gas(g)) ⁃ Shape, Volume, Compressibility, Flow( Can the atoms move? Freedom of motion) ⁃ Solids: No freedom of motion. Because of this, they are rigid in shape and they do not take the shape of the container. They are packed closely to one another meaning there is not much empty space between each particle. They are not compressible. ⁃ Liquids: Some freedom of motion, more than a solid but less than a gas, since there is some freedom of motion it will be ﬂuidic and will take the shape of the container. Because it is only some freedom of motion it can not escape the container. liquids are packed closely(not compressible). ⁃ Gases: Has the MOST freedom of motion and range to move around. Gases are going to take the shape of the container. The particles are not packed closely. Gases are compressible. A lot of empty space between the gas particles. • Composition(What is it made out of? The number of particles? The identity of the compounds) ⁃ Pure substances- Made of one compound/particle. (Ex: Glass of water, Helium Balloons! :D ⁃ Mixture- Made of more than one. (A cup of coffee, Air,) ⁃ Pure substances VS Mixture. ⁃ Pure substances can be classiﬁed as either an element of a compound. It is classiﬁed by the ability to decompose or breakdown the matter through a chemical reaction. ⁃ Elements you can not break down any further. Elements are made of the same kind of atoms.(EX: Helium balloons, Hydrogen gas(made of two hydrogen atoms therefore it becomes a molecule) and it is a molecular element. ⁃ Compounds can be broken down further. Compounds are made of two or more typer of atoms. (2 hydrogen atoms + 1 Oxygen atom ) ⁃ Mixtures- Based on the uniformity of the sample. ⁃ Heterogeneous mixture- Not uniform throughout the sample. (EX: Sand in water. At the top there will be more water at the top than sand. The ratio of the components are different) ⁃ Homogeneous mixture- Uniformed throughout the sample. (EX: Cup of coffee, AIR( the amount of oxygen will be uniformed) • Atoms- The smallest particle still characterizing a chemical element • Molecules- Made of more than one atom, joined together though a bond • Atoms determine the shape, properties of matter *Quick Deﬁnitions* ⁃ Element: Not separable into simpler substances ⁃ Compound: Separable into simpler substances ⁃ Heterogenous: Not uniformed throughout ⁃ Homogeneous: Uniformed throughout The Philosophy of Matter • Leucippus and Democritus both believed that matter has this overall small particle inside it… • Plato and Aristotle had the belief that you couldn’t see matter… • John Dalton could support Leucippus and Democritus’ belief that matter was made up of smaller particles. The Atomic Theory • Daltons Atomic Theory ⁃ Law of Conservation of Mass ⁃ States that the amount of reactions I put in I need to get out. Matter is neither created nor destroyed. Example, If we use 7 grams of sodium in this reaction and combine with 11 g of chlorine gas, we make sodium chloride. We NEED to get out 18 grams of sodium chloride. Whatever you put in you need to get out. All that happens in the reaction is REARRANGING of atoms. ⁃ Law of Deﬁnite Proportions states that a compound will have the same ratio of atoms it is made out of no matter the source, by which it was prepared. (EX: Water. If you decompose water you should get the same ratio of Oxygen to Hydrogen no matter where the water is coming from) We use Mass ratio: Mass Oxygen/Mass hydrogen. (Water: 1x16.0g/2x1.0g) = 8/1. 8g Oxygen= 1g hydrogen. # of hydrogen + oxygen is combined in a whole ratio. ⁃ Decompose Water: 32g oxygen= 32g oxygen/x g hydrogen ( You get 4 out ) ⁃ Law of Multiple Proportions (EX: A and B. Combine them 1 to 1 and then combine the same exact elements but 1 to 2 (AB2). Mass Ration AB2/Mass Ratio AB = INTEGERS = 2xB/1xA/1xB/1xA = 2/1/1/1= 2. This concludes that matter comes in chunks. Meaning it is not continuous. ⁃ Daltons Atomic Theory ⁃ He states that elements are fadeout of tiny indestructible particles. CALLED ATOMS :D ⁃ Atoms of a given element will have the same mass and property of atoms of the same mass, and property of atoms of the same element. ⁃ Atoms can combine in ﬁnite whole number ratios to make molecules. ⁃ Atoms of one element can not change into atoms of another element. You can not change from a carbon to a hydrogen. Nuclear Theory • An atoms mass is mainly at the core/center(nucleus). Most of the atoms VOLUME is empty space! In the nucleus it contains the protons and neutrons. positively charged particles are located in the nucleus. The the space around the nucleus are where the electrons are located. Mass of protons and neutrons are the same. Most atoms are neutral meaning the total charge is 0. It can have ions( Charged atoms or molecules). Opposite charges attract. The same charges will repel. The number of protons distinguish one element from another. The identity of an element is deﬁned by the number of protons. Atomic number(Z) is the number of protons the element has and it is always the whole number found on your periodic table. There is also a chemical symbol associated with each element. A chemical symbol can be one to three letters that we use to abbreviate an element. The ﬁrst letter is always capitalized and the rest is lowercase :D If you know the chemical symbol then you know the number of protons if you have a pd table! The atomic number is written as a subscript on the left side of them chemical symbol. The mass number(A) refers to the sum of PROTONS and NEUTRONS. Isotopes are atoms with the same number of protons but different neutrons. REMEMBER THE ELEMENTS WITH ATOMIC NUMBERS: 1-36, 47, 48, 50, 79, 80, 82. • Atoms consist of electrons, protons, and neutrons • Electrons(e-) = 0,00091x10^-27kg. Electrons are negatively charged. • Protons(P+)= 1.67262x10^-27kg. (Protons are positively charges particles. • Neutrons(N)= 1.67493x10^-27kg. Neutrons are neutral and has no charge • Opposite electrical charges attract! • Similar Charges are too much alike to attract, so they repel! (Positive ﬂees from a positive and negative ﬂees from a negative) • Charges with the same magnitude(+1 + -1) will equal to 0. The Anatomy of An Atom • The number of protons differentiates each element. It is basically the identity of the element. • The Mass number is over the Atomic number! ( M/A ) • The Mass Number is the number of protons + the number of neutrons Isotopes ⁃ The same element with the same atomic number but different mass number.(same amount of protons, different number of neutrons) Ions(Charges atoms/molecules) ⁃ Ions are atoms that have different numbers of electrons and protons. ⁃ Cations are the positive ions. # of electrons < than the # of protons? It is a CATION. ⁃ Anions are the negative ions. # of electrons > than the # of protons? Is is an ANION. Atomic Mass Unit ⁃ 1/12 the mass of an atom of carbon. (The little number under the chemical symbol!) ⁃ Naturally occurring isotopes ⁃ Natural Abundance ⁃ Atomic Mass Mass Spectrum ⁃ A cool technique that separates the particles according to their mass!
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