ARH252 Week 2 Notes: August 22-August 26
ARH252 Week 2 Notes: August 22-August 26 ARH 252
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This 10 page Class Notes was uploaded by Krystyna Kridos on Monday August 22, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ARH 252 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Mary K. Benefield in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 28 views.
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Date Created: 08/22/16
Notes for August 22, 2016 Paleolithic and Western Europe(cont.) Neolithic ● Landscape Volcanic Eruption(slide 17) ○ 6150 BCE ○ First known landscape painting in which humans and animals do not appear ○ Possibly a narrative ○ Expansive land seen from a specific viewpoint ○ Trying to depict a landmark ○ May or may not be erupting ○ One of the oldest mural paintings from Catal Hӧyük ○ Pure landscape ● Deer Hunt(slide 18) ○ 5750 BCE ○ Most depictive picture of the shape of the human body ○ Composite view ■ See whole body ○ Hunting deer ● Hagar Qim(Slide 19) ○ Malta ○ 2500 BCE ○ Megalithic structure ○ Monumental architecture ○ Possibly a temple ○ Megalith huge stone ○ Used post and lintel system ■ Two posts support a horizontal beam ● Stonehenge(Slide 20) ○ Salisbury Plain, Wiltshire, England ○ 2550 1600 BCE ○ Circle: 97’ in diameter; trilithons: 24’ high ■ Trilithons threestone constructions ○ Arrangement of megalithic stone with a ditch ○ Cremated remains found ○ Could have possibly been a funerary site in it’s early stages ○ Also used as a solar calendar ○ Heel stone ■ Sun rises above on summer solstice ○ Built in several stages over hundreds of years ● Clicker Questions: ○ Agriculture and raising stock became human kind’s chief source of food during the _________ period. ■ Neolithic ○ The use of _________ along with it’s large scale suggested the sculpture Human with Feline Head was important to the creator. ■ Mammoth ivory ○ Figures sculpted in the round can be defined as __________ ■ Freestanding sculptures ○ Venus of Willendorf is thought to be a _________ ■ Fertility sculpture ○ _________ was used almost every time for the representation of animals in paleolithic life. ■ Profile view ○ What was on of the most outstanding differences between neolithic and paleolithic art? ■ Larger scale and a more sophisticated technique ○ Figures in the D eer Hunt wall painting from Catal Hӧyük are rendered in _________ which describes what a human body is. ■ Composite view August 24, 2016 Mesopotamia and Persia ○ Fundamental change of man ○ Mesopotamia is between the Tigris and Euphrates river ○ Huge power struggle during these times Sumerian ○ Called the culture of firsts ○ They were first to: ■ Written languages(cuneiform) ■ Citystates ■ Laws ■ Irrigation ■ Learn to use the wheel and plow ○ Transitioning to civilization ○ Brought out of neolithic culture and into civilization ○ Culture: ■ Shared language ■ Beliefs ■ Behaviors ■ Customs ■ Technology ○ What separates culture from civilization? ■ Laws ■ Transportation ■ Hierarchy ○ Stage of human social development ○ 35003000 Urban revolution ○ Independant citystates governed by the king ○ King was believed to be segway between God’s and the people ○ Citystates ■ Took responsibility for all its inhabitants ■ If you grew crops you took to city center and they were dispersed equally ○ Society revolved around agriculture ○ Polytheistic society ■ Believed in more than one god ○ First known literature → Epic of Gilgamesh ● White Temple and Ziggurat, Uruk ○ 3200 3000 BCE ○ Ziggurat center of city ○ Built before pyramids ○ Highest point in town ○ Reached by a series of ramps ○ Priests and kings resided on top of the ziggurat ■ So they could be closer to the God’s ■ Better vantage point of the citystate ○ Made out of mud brick ○ Was built high so that it would not be flooded ○ Indicative of importance ○ Each citystate had a specific deity they focused on ■ Anu God of the sky(Uruk) ■ Nanna moon God(Ur) ■ Inanna(Ishtar) Sumerian Goddess of love and war(Uruk) ○ The White Temple was probably dedicated to Anu, the sky god ○ Had a central hall(cella) w/ a stepped altar ○ Was battered ■ Had sloping sides and was inclined ○ Also has crenellations(indented sides on ziggurat) ● Inanna(Ishtar) ○ Uruk, Iraq ○ 3200 3000 BCE 4th millenium BCE ○ Marble ○ Found at burial site ○ 8’’ high ○ Possibly inlaid with jewels ○ Possibly had a wig ○ Possibly connected to a whole body ● Warka Vase ○ First to use pictures to tell a story ○ First to use ground line ○ Votive offering ○ Relief sculpture ○ Depicts a religious festival in honor of Inanna ○ Organized narrative into registers with figures standing on a common ground line ○ Read from bottom to top ○ Bottom registers: ■ rams and crops depict how these were the staple of the sumerian economy ○ Middle registers: ■ the naked men carrying crops depicts a votive offering to the gods ■ composite view ○ Top registers: ■ scale of figures indicate a higher importance ■ Clothing represents a figure of authority(king/priest) along with the cap ■ Inanna can be seen wearing a horned helmet(indicative of a God) ● Eshnunna Statuettes ○ Square Temple, Eshnunna, Iraq ○ Statuette of two worshipers ○ 2700 BCE ○ Gypsum, shell, and black limestone ○ There was a whole group of these statuettes found in varying sizes ○ They were not meant to be seen together ○ Their purpose was to essentially be a stand in for worshiping when the person was not physically there ○ Statuettes holding libations(ritual pouring of liquid) ○ The eyes most likely symbolize the eternal wakefulness necessary to fulfil their duty ● Standard of Ur(War side) ○ Royal Cemetery of Ur ○ 2600 2400 BCE ○ 8’’ x 1’7’’ ○ Trapezoidal box with two sides(War/peace) ○ Wooden inlaid with lapis lazuli(imported//shows importance) ○ Read from left to right and top to bottom ○ Bottom register: ■ coming/going to battle ■ Crushing bodies of their enemies in their chariots ○ Middle register: ■ Foot soldiers lead away slaves/prisoners of war August 26, 2016 Mesopotamia and Persia(cont.) Sumerian(cont.) ● Review from Aug. 24, 2016 ○ Society most advanced ○ Religion was important in everyday life ○ Each citystate was under the rule of a certain God/deity ○ Double scale size of scale dignifies importance ○ Royal Cemetary at Ur ■ People buried in elaborate fashions ● Gold, jewels,chariots, etc. ● Sometimes servants were killed and buried with owners ● Bull Headed Harp ○ Royal cemetery at Ur ○ 2600 2400 BCE ○ 1’ 7’’ high ○ Lapiz lazuli, red limestone ○ From tomb 789(King’s grave) ○ Also known as a lyre ● Sound Box(inlaid on bull headed harp) ○ Meaning unknown ○ Profile view ○ Funerary object ○ The hero’s body and scorpionman are the only figures in composite view ○ Musical instrument ○ Possibly depicting God’s ○ Possibly representative of the afterlife or an epic poem/story ○ In the top register the artist used heraldic composition(symmetrical on either side of a figure) ● Cylinder Seals ○ Made of lapis lazuli ○ Worn like a necklace ○ Used to sign documents Akkadian ○ 2332 BCE ○ King Sargon father of Akkadians ○ Where they come from is unknown but they are believed to have come from the Babylon area ○ Take over the Sumerian area ○ Semitic in origin ○ Spoken language related to hebrew and arabic and did not speak sumerian ○ Adopted cuneiform when they took over ○ Their kings were viewed as a God rather than someone chosen by the God’s to represent them ● Head of an Akkadian Ruler ○ Hollow cast ○ 2550 2200 BCE ○ At one point there was a whole body connected ○ Destruction possibly due to dislike of the king ○ Unique blend of abstract features and naturalistic features ○ Blending of features represent how people could have looked at this ruler as larger than life or other worldly ○ Oldest known monumental work of a hollowcast sculpture ● Victory of Stele of NaramSin ○ Susa, Iran ○ 2254 2218 BCE ○ 6’7’’ high ○ Shows defeat of lullabi people by the Akkadians ○ No registers but narrative can be seen clearly ○ NaramSin figure is obvious and is shown in a composite view ○ The three suns represent other Gods/deities ○ First landscape in ancient art ○ Order on the left → chaos on the right ○ Naramsin is larger than the other figures ○ Naramsin seen wearing a horned helmet signifying divinity ○ Peak of mountain touching the sun ○ First time king is in art ○ First monument dedicated to gods ○ First time seeing a figure “falling through space” NeoSumerian period ○ The mountain people Gutians, bring an end to Akkadian power in 2150 BCE ○ Sumerians united and drove the Gutians out ○ Neo sumerian age started (also known as the Third Dynasty of Ur) ● Ziggurat at Ur ○ Building of architecture that speaks to them as people ○ Millennium after 1st ziggurat at Uruk ○ Three staircases lead to the top with 100 stairs per staircase ○ Possible drainage slits to give relief to structure ○ 250’ tall ○ Mud brick base is 50’ high ● Gudea of Lagash ○ Girsu, iraq ○ 2100 BCE ○ Diorite ■ hard permanent stone ■ expensive ○ 2’5’’ high ○ Symbol of power and authority ○ Shown enthroned(seated) ○ Has a very frontal composition ○ Typically looks idealistic with no imperfections The Code of Hammurabi ○ Re Emergence of citystates ○ Babylon ruled by Hammurabi ○ Reestablishment of centralized government ○ Hammurabi known for conquests
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