Microbiology Chapter 2 Notes
Microbiology Chapter 2 Notes BIO 2600
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Katelyn Farris on Monday August 22, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIO 2600 at William Carey University taught by Dr. Cunningham in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 5 views. For similar materials see Microbiology in Biology at William Carey University.
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Date Created: 08/22/16
Chapter 2 notes Chemistry of Carbon and Organic Compounds -Organic chemicals – compounds containing carbon bonded to hydrogen -Carbon is the basic element of life -Contains 4 atoms in its outer orbital -Can form single, double, or triple covalent bonds -Can form linear, branched, or ringed bonds Functional Groups of Organic Compounds -Accessory molecules that bind to organic compounds -Confer unique reactive properties on the whole molecule Macromolecules -Biochemicals are organic compounds produced by living things -Macromolecules are large compounds assembled from smaller subunits -Monomer: a repeating subunit -Polymer: a chain of monomers Macromolecules 1. Carbohydrates – monosaccharides, disaccharides, polysaccharides 2. Lipids – triglycerides (fats and oils), phospholipids, steroids 3. Proteins 4. Nucleic Acid – DNA, RNA Carbohydrates -Sugars and polysaccharides -General formula (CH2O)n -Aldehydes and Ketones -Saccharide: simple carb -Monosaccharide: 3-7 carbons -Disaccharide: two monosaccharides -Polysaccharide: five or more monosaccarides *Look at figure 2.15b* Carbs -Subunits linked by glycosidic bonds -Dehydration synthesis: loss of water in a polymerization reaction -Functions – cell structure, adhesion, and metabolism Chapter 2 notes Lipids -Long or complex, hydrophobic, C-H chains -Triglycerides, phospholipids in membranes, steroids like cholesterol -Functions -triglycerides – energy storage -phospholipids – major cell membrane component -steroids – cell membrane component Proteins -Predominant molecules in cells -Monomer – amino acids -Polymer – peptide, polypeptide, protein -Subunits linked by peptide bonds -Fold into very specific 3-D shapes -Functions – support, enzymes, transport *Table 41* *Table 2.5* know essential ? *Figure 2.21* Nucleic Acid -DNA and RNA -Monomer – nucleotide -DNA – deoxyribonucleic acid -A,T,C,G – nitrogen bases -Double Helix -Function – hereditary material -RNA – ribonucleic acid -A,U,C,G – nitrogen bases -Function: organize protein synthesis *Figure 2.24* Look at something on page 51 Double Helix of DNA -DNA is formed by two very long polynucleotide strands linked along their length by hydrogen bonds Passing on the Genetic Message -Each strand is copied -Replication is guided by base pairing -Each result is two separate double strands ATP: The Energy Molecule of Cells -Adenosine triophosphate -Nucleotide – adenine, ribose, three phosphates -Function – transfer and storage of energy