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Geography Week 1 Notes

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by: Annah Shrader

Geography Week 1 Notes GEOG 1030-01

Annah Shrader
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About this Document

These notes cover the introduction to the course and material discussed in the first lecture.
World Geography
Robert C. Hoff
Class Notes




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"Thank you so much! I can hardly hear Professor Hoff and only managed to get one page of notes."
Rachel Graham

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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Annah Shrader on Monday August 22, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to GEOG 1030-01 at University of Tennessee - Chattanooga taught by Robert C. Hoff in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 120 views. For similar materials see World Geography in History at University of Tennessee - Chattanooga.


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Thank you so much! I can hardly hear Professor Hoff and only managed to get one page of notes.

-Rachel Graham


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Date Created: 08/22/16
Geography Lecture Day 1 Overview: Today was an introduction for the class on subjects pertaining to geography. The lecture was an overview of The Introduction in the textbook. ******= Teacher explicitly mentioned the term would be on an exam. Quiz 1 is next week on the material found in the Major Geographic Qualities of Europe box on p. 43. Topics the teacher vocalized in class: -Geography is one of many disciplines, but most importantly it is a spatial discipline. -The word geography is of Greek origin meaning to describe the Earth.  Scale – Different sized units correspond to one another. For example, something relatively large, like the Earth, is represented on something relatively small, like a map, in order to assist visualization. When the Earth is drawn to scale, so many miles will correspond to a measurement such as centimeters or inches. There are three ways information is expressed on scales: o Representative Fraction: This is the most common information found on a scale. It will be written in fraction form such as 1:24,000 meaning that 1 inch on the map stands for 24,000 ground inches. o Graphic Symbol: Similar to a bar scale that will have a bar of distance corresponding to miles or kilometers. o Word Statement: The relationship between units expressed in words.  Realms and Regions: A realm is the largest category of spatial units that meets numerous criteria such as environment, political, cultural, historical, and economics of a similar type. It is essentially the largest unit the world can be divided into. An example of a realm would be South America. Regions are boundaries within realms. The separation could be natural, such as a river, or it could be cultural such as races living separately. The terms North and East are used describing regions. Relative location is more useful than knowing absolute location. The boundaries of regions are not usually sharp, but rather a blended transition from one environment to the next. There are two types of regions: o ***Formal Region***: This is a location of homogenous (same) activity. An example would be the Cotton belt of the South. A lot of the same thing is grown over a lot of acreage is a formal region. o Functional Region: This is a functioning system that is not homogenous. A city is an example. There are many different activities in a city, many different cultures mixed together in close proximity. Another example is a school district. He also mentioned that a city has a core where specific services are concentrated, and then a peripheral of satellite activity on the outskirts. Types of Geography:  Physical Geography: The study of natural features occurring or found on the Earth. Anything from rivers, land, climate, to natural disasters. o Continental Drift: Theory proposed by Alfred Wegener, a German Geologist, 100 years ago. Wegener noticed that the land masses on the map looked like pieces of a puzzle that were pulled apart. He theorized that all the land was once connected, and has been drifting apart ever since. His idea was met by skeptics initially, but eventually was proven correct by geologists. o Weather: Atmospheric conditions at the current time, in the present. Daily conditions. o Climate: The weather over an extended period of time. Typical conditions for the year.  Type A Climates are equatorial.  Type B Climates are dry, deserts.  Type C Climates are temperate. (Where we live).  Type D Climates are cold.  Type E Climates are polar caps, north and south, Antarctica.  Type H Climates are unpredictable Mountain locations o Vegetation: Closely related to climate patterns. The Sahara was once rich with vegetation, but the climate became drier, thus vegetation changed too. o Soil Distributions: The East coast has more acidic soil, while the Midwest has basic soil.  Cultural Geography: Everything that humans make. Study of society’s way of life across the grid. This involves types of infrastructure, religion, food preferences, and appearance. o ***Population Clusters Map***: There are four major clusters discussed:  East Asia: China, Japan, Korea. China has a population of approx. 1.3 billion people  South Asia: India also has a population of approx. 1.3 billion  Western Europe: Germany, Slovakian areas.  Megalopolis: Between Washington D.C. and Boston.  Political Geography: Borders and boundaries between nations, distribution of natural resources, size and population, ruling forces, etc. There will be more information on this in future chapters.  Economic Geography: Study of the workforce and distribution, and location across the world. 4 broad categories o Primary Occupations: People who take raw materials away from their natural environments. These are farmers, miners, foresters, and fisherman. o Secondary Occupations: People who take the raw materials from the primary group and make them into usable items for the society. These are manufacturing jobs. o Tertiary Occupations: Sales, business, real estate, banking services. Most jobs are found here. o Quaternary Occupations: Technical information such as IT. This is a newer category added recently for technological advancement.  Economic Development: This was touched on at the end of class. More information will be provided in the future. This is the relative development of the society based on things like energy consumption, population pyramids, transportation, occupation, use of metal, literacy, disease occurrence, infant mortality, etc.


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