PSYC 1 Week 1
PSYC 1 Week 1 1
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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Soon-Won Han on Monday August 22, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 1 at University of California San Diego taught by Nicole Henniger in Summer 2016. Since its upload, it has received 14 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Psychology in Psychology (PSYC) at University of California San Diego.
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Date Created: 08/22/16
Lecture #1: Introduction What is Psychology? Psychology: The systematic study of behavior and experience We study it to … o Understand o Explain o Predict … Behavior Topics o Personality o Physiology o Psychiatric Disorders o Research o Cognition o Language o Emotions o Sensation o Perception o Development o Social Psychology General Points about Psychology o "It depends" Few things are true of all people, all the time, in all circumstances o Research progress depends on good measurement Are you measuring what you say you are measuring? What are you comparing it to? Does the sample accurately reflect the population? o Some statements in psychology reflect stronger evidence that others o Correlation does not indicate causation o Variations among individuals reflect both heredity and environment What Psychologists Do o Psychology is an academic, nonmedical discipline with many branches and specialties The educational requirements vary, but generally involve study beyond the bachelor's degree A master's degree or a Ph.D./PsyD. Are common terminal degrees o There are many specialties in the broad science of psychology. Psychologists practice in three main areas: Service providers to individuals (psychotherapists) Service providers to organizations Teaching and research o Service providers to individual Psychotherapists: Professionals with training in psychology who specialize in helping people with emotional and mental problems Clinical psychologists Advanced degree in psychology (PhD or PsyD) Lecture #1: Introduction Help people with mental and emotional problems and most often work with clinical populations: People with diagnoses Receive training inintellectual and psychological testingused in diagnosis and treatment Can work in private practice or at a hospital (inpatient) Counseling psychologists Advanced degree in psychology Help with educational, vocational, marriage, health, and other important life decisions Typically don't treat clinical populations Some also do psychological testing Psychoanalysts Use treatment strategies based on theories and methods pioneered by Sigmund Freud Believe an unconscious component of the human mind affects every day psychological functioning "Talk therapy" and dream analysis Psychiatrists Trained as medical doctors (MDs) Training in psychology Educated in how to use prescription drugs to treat psychological distress Clinical social workers Training in social work Specialized knowledge related to treatment of and advocacy for the wellbeing of emotionally disturbed people in the larger community Forensic psychologists Provide advice and consultation in the legal and criminal justice systems Questions Which psychotherapist would prescribe a mood stabilizing medication to a patient diagnosed with bipolar disorder? Counseling psychologist Psychiatrist Clinical psychologist Psychoanalyst Which psychotherapist would do assessment and therapy in an inpatient facility for developmentally delayed children and adolescents? Counseling psychologist Psychiatrist Clinical psychologist Psychoanalyst o Service providers to organizations Industrial/Organizational psychologists Describe and explain workplace behavior Lecture #1: Introduction Use a combination: Social psychology Cognitive psychology Motivational psychology Personality tests Sample question: Workers in two departments at an engineering firm are withholding information from each other. This is harming company morale and productivity. Can this be remedied without firing or moving any employees? Human factors, User experience (UX), and HumanComputer Interaction (HCI) researchers Facilitate the design of machinery, displays, software, websites, and equipment so that the average user can operate them efficiently and safely. Apply what they know about human behavior, perception, and cognition to create more usable products and work environments Sample question: How can a workstation be designed to minimize the possibility of sustaining repetitive stress injuries? School psychologists Assess the psychological condition and educational performance of students in grades K12 Uses developmental, learning, and motivational principles and educational and psychological tests to create plans for individual students Same question: Does a fourthgrade student's declining grades indicate the presence of a learning disability or an emotional problem? Question Which psychologist would consult in the design of an airplane cockpit to maximize crew efficiency and safety? Human factors psychologist School psychologist Industrial/Organizational psychologist o Teaching and Research Academic or Experimental psychologists Most teaching psychologists work in colleges and universities Most psychologists who teach also engage in research and writing Some psychologists are employed in fulltime research positions PhD in Experimental Psychology Major categories of psychological research Developmental psychology Learning and motivation Cognitive psychology Biological psychology or neuroscience Evolutionary psychology Social psychology Crosscultural psychology Learning and Motivation Lecture #1: Introduction Developmental psychologist: Someone who studies how behavior, personality, and performance change with age What do people do or know as adults that they do not know as children? Is this due to biological changes, increased experience, or both? Learning or Motivation psychologist: Someone investigates how behavior is influenced by outcomes of past behaviors and current motivations Do predictable rewards produce better learning than less consistent rewards? Cognitive Psychology Cognitive psychologist: Someone who studies the processes involved in thinking and acquiring knowledge When people are paying attention to one thing, can they notice other things? Neuroscience Neuroscientist: Someone who explains behavior in terms of biological factors Can we see the formation of memories in the brain? How do drugs work in the brain? Evolutionary Psychology Evolutionary psychologist: Someone who explains behavior in terms of natural selection pressures promoting behaviors that lead to success in reproduction and survival What forces led to selection for human language abilities? Social Psychology Social psychologist: Someone studies how an individual influences and is influenced by other people How do demands and expectations of authority figures influence our behavior? How strong is the human tendency to conform? CrossCultural Psychology Crosscultural psychologist: Someone who compares the behavior of people from different cultures Which cultures place more emphasis on group interests and how does that affect individual behavior? Question Which would ask if people will obey a leader who is demanding behavior that might be classified as immoral or wrong? Developmental psychologist Biological psychologist/neuroscientist Learning and motivation psychologist Cognitive psychologist Social psychologist Which psychologist wants to know when language learning occurs most rapidly in children? Developmental psychologist Biological psychologist/neuroscientist Lecture #1: Introduction Learning and motivation psychologist Cognitive psychologist Social psychologist Which psychologist would do research to determine how memories are stores in the brain? Developmental psychologist Biological psychologist/neuroscientist Learning and motivation psychologist Cognitive psychologist Social psychologist Lecture #2: Methods Research Designs Science is an approach to learning Goals of science: o Describe (Survey, case history) o Predict (Correlation) o Determine cause (Experiment) o Control (Experiment) Observational Research Design o Watching behavior, often in a realworld setting o Pros: Natural Good place to start o Cons: Can't answer why Difficult to be unobtrusive o Naturalistic Observation : Careful monitoring and description of humans and animals in natural settings Example: Dr. Jane Goodall's longterm observation and recording of social organization and biological functioning of chimpanzees. o Case Study: Thorough description of a single event most often an unusual or rare condition Example: Phineas Gage whose bizarre, tragic accident taught neuroscientists much about the brain's prefrontal cortex. o Surveys: Studies of the prevalence of certain beliefs, attitudes, or behaviors, based on people's responses to specific questions Concerns: Problems obtaining truly random or representative samples Competence or honesty of those who respond The wording of the questions Surveyor bias Correlational studies o Correlational research describes relationships between variables Examples include: height, weight, socioeconomic level, number of years of education Correlation coefficient: Numeric index of the relationship's strength and direction Value ranges from 1 to 1 The higher the absolute value, the stronger the relationship Negative () correlation is produced when one variable increases as the other decreases The more frequently a student is absent, the lower the grade earned Positive (+) correlation results when both variables increase and decrease together Lecture #2: Methods The higher the annual income, the greater the amount of donations to charity A 0 or near0 correlation means that the variables have no relationship. Changes in one are unrelated to changes in the other. Question Positive or negative correlation? The greater the number of years of education, the higher the income Positive Negative Positive or negative correlation? The greater the score on a depression inventory, the lower the score on a memory test Positive Negative Which relationship is stronger, +0.30 or 0.90? 0.30 0.90 o Concept check Interpreting correlational research A study found a 0.75 correlation between frequency of exercise and level of depression Possible conclusions? General Principles of Research Experiment: A study in which at least one variable is manipulated (independent variable) and at least one other (dependent variable) is measured Scientists seek evidence that will support or disprove a claim o Hypothesis: A testable prediction of what should occur under a precisely stated set of conditions Questions o To determine if adrenaline enhances memory, a research trains rats to run a maze. She gives a randomly selected portion of the rats a drug to block adrenaline production. All rats are timed running the maze. What are the independent and dependent variables? IV = adrenaline, DV = drug IV = drug, DV = rat's time to run the maze IV = rat's time to run the maze, DV = drug IV = adrenaline, DV = rat's time to run the maze o Researchers spent six months watching toddlers in day care and home settings. They have concluded that usually children combine words in simple sentences by age 2 Naturalistic observation; description Case study; description Correlational; prediction Experiment; explanation and control o By comparing three groups of people, one getting no treatment, one getting traditional treatment, and one receiving newly developed virtual reality therapy, psychologists have Lecture #2: Methods concluded that you can overcome fear of spiders by using a virtual reality system to gradually raise your comfort level in the presence of spiders Naturalistic observation; description Case study; description Correlational; prediction Experiment; explanation and control o Studies done in randomly selected suburban neighborhoods across the US have shown that the higher the income level, the fewer the average number of years that a family has lived in the neighborhood Naturalistic observation; description Case study; description Correlational; prediction Experiment; explanation and control Measurement o Psychological constructs are not directly measurable o Behavioral, observable definitions are developed for constructs: rational definitions Specify the procedures used to measure it Produce a numerical value for the construct o Operationalization We are investigating the effects of televised violence on children's aggressive behavior We need to operationalize televised "violence" Violence: The number of times that threats or assaults depicted during an hourlong show We need to operationalize "aggressive behavior" Aggressive behavior: The number of insults, threats, and assaults by the subject during the 24hour period after watching a television program Question Which of the following is an operational definition of intelligence? The ability to comprehend relationships A score on an IQ test The ability to survive in the real world The product of the cerebral cortex of the brain o Population samples It's usually impractical/impossible to study whole populations A number of observations or individuals are collected instead This is a sample. We can generalize to the whole population from it Types of samples & sampling procedures: Convenience sample: Chosen because of easy availability Representative sample: Closely resembles the population in proportion of gender, ethnic or racial groups, age levels, and other relevant characteristics Random sample: Every member has an equal chance of being selected Crosscultural sample: Comprised of people from 2 or more distinct cultures Lecture #2: Methods o Other important terminology Experimental group: Individuals receiving treatment Control group: Individuals not exposed to the treatment (holding all other conditions equal) Random assignment: Subjects placed in the experimental or control group based on chance Challenges in Experimentation Experimenter bias: The researcher's unintentional distortion of study procedures or results Methods devised to counteract these tendencies include: o Observers record data while unaware ("blind") of the study's purpose o Placebo control: A fake treatment preventing the subject (singleblind) or the subject and the experimenter (doubleblind) knowing who has received the treatment Demand characteristics: Cues that reveal the researcher's expectations to the subject o Example: If the subject knows that the drug being tested is supposed to improve mood, he or she may "feel better" The Hawthorne Effect: The tendency of people to work harder and perform better simply because they are being watched or because there has been some kind of change in their routine Ethical considerations: Researchers must weigh possible harm that may be inflicted against benefits that may be gained o Humans IRB: A panel of qualified judges who review research proposals Informed consent o Animals Care committees ensure that research animals are treated humanely, researchers minimize injury and pain, and alternatives are reviewed before animals undergo potentially painful procedures
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