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English 325 Week One Notes

by: Clarissa Notetaker

English 325 Week One Notes ENG 325

Marketplace > Humboldt State University > ENG 325 > English 325 Week One Notes
Clarissa Notetaker
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These are the notes from Professor Doty's first two lectures. Why Study the history of the English language? The Pre History of English (Indo-European Period)
History of the English Language
Dr. Kathleen Doty
Class Notes
Why Study the history of the English language? The Pre History of English (Indo-European Period)




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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Clarissa Notetaker on Monday August 22, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ENG 325 at Humboldt State University taught by Dr. Kathleen Doty in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 11 views.

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Date Created: 08/22/16
Week 1 English 325 History of the English Language Why study the history of the English language? -Understand how/why English is the way it is now -Understand the irregularities that are actually remnants of earlier, regular patterns -Appreciate literature from earlier times -Self-knowledge and understanding What makes language change? -Internal and external factors Internal 1. Syntagmatic Change: sounds and words may affect neighboring sounds or words. example: sandwiches is often pronounced 'sanwiches' or 'samiches' to reflect the influence of nearby sounds 2. Paradigmatic/Associative Change: sounds and words may be affected by others they are associated with. example: ladeboard (the side of the ship) was changed to 'larboard' because of the word 'starboard' and later became 'port' to avoid confusion. External 1. Geography: migration, language contact (often the powerful impose their language on the weak) 2. Events: social, political, cultural, new items and ideas 3. Imperfect learning by speakers new to a language 4. Social prestige: certain language forms are associated with higher class and are adopted to increase status Language Families Germanic Baltic Armenian Iranic Albanian Indic Italic Celtic Hellenic Slavic Dead Languages Aeolic Latin Tocharian Old Church Slavonic Doric Cornish Hittite Attic-Ionic Manx Sanskrit and Prakrits Mycenaean Gothic Old Prussian Pre History of English: the Indo-European Period Proto-Indo-European: hypothesized to be the mother of all Indo-European languages, it has been reconstructed based on evidence in the absence of any written record. British Empire: Britain colonizing other nations, imposing British culture and language William Jones: -a British man who traveled to India in the 18th century and studied the languages there -Jones saw parallels in the words of the different languages, especially between Sanskrit and Latin and Greek example: the word for 'king' Sanskrit: raj Latin: rex German: reich Celtic: rix (Words with the same meaning but in different forms were later termed cognates, two words that share a common origin) -Jones questioned why these similarities existed and reasoned that they must have a common origin, an earlier form -Jones believed Sanskrit to be this mother language -More people built on Jones' findings and found that Sanskrit is only one branch in the 'tree' model of languages -Scholars still debate over whether there was ever a single mother language or multiple. The latter view tends to be considered the more credible. Why did languages branch out from Proto-Indo-European? -Sound changes -Indo-European roots that may not look like current words but are their source Characteristics of the Indo-European Period (8000 BCE-CE 449): -Mostly agricultural people sharing similar words for similar items -Writing was starting to develop with different systems in different times and places -Invasions, sackings, conquests -Rise and fall of the Roman Empire


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